Best cbd oil for hypothyroidism

CBD for Thyroid [Understanding Hormone Release]

The thyroid is an important endocrine gland that wraps around the front of the trachea at the base of the neck. It secretes a variety of hormones that regulate systems throughout the body. A healthy thyroid gland ensures good heart, bone, and muscle function.

The gland maintains communication with the brain, which helps it to modulate internal homeostasis. The thyroid also affects processes like metabolism, heart rate, body temperature, and even emotional responses. Thyroid disorders can produce a wide range of symptoms, as well as life-threatening health complications.

Researchers have uncovered some connections between the thyroid/brain communication network and the body’s endocannabinoid system (ECS). The ECS (which is present in both the central nervous system and the thyroid gland itself) might play a role in facilitating hormone release. If true, this would mean products like CBD oil might be able to impact various types of thyroid disorders.

In this article, we discuss what the thyroid does and the symptoms of a dysfunctional thyroid gland. We’ll also go over the use of CBD for thyroid disorders and take a look at academic research on the topic.

What Is the Thyroid, and What Are Thyroid Disorders?

The thyroid is an endocrine gland that releases hormones to control dozens of different internal processes. Thyroid activity influences metabolism, growth, brain development (especially during infancy), body temperature, heart and muscle functioning, and a variety of other processes. The gland releases various collective hormones (such as thyroxine, or T4) called thyroid hormones.

Thyroid glands that release either too much (hyperthyroidism) or too little (hypothyroidism) hormone can be catastrophic to organ functioning and to your health and well-being. Specific disorders of the thyroid can include things like:

  • Goiter (swelling of the thyroid)
  • Thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid due to infection or autoimmune conditions)
  • Graves’ disease (which causes an overactive thyroid)
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Small lumps on the thyroid that may lead to excess hormone production, aka thyroid nodules
  • Thyroid storm (a rare form of hyperthyroidism that results in high levels of hormone secretion)

Because thyroid conditions can cause so many malfunctions in the body, it can be difficult to detect a specific disorder. There are certain tests to check for thyroid imbalances. These tests include biopsies, imaging scans (such as ultrasounds or iodine scans), and blood tests that check for proper levels of T3, T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

The Prevalence of Thyroid Disorder in the U.S.

The American Thyroid Association (ATA) estimates that thyroid disorders currently affect up to 20 million Americans. Furthermore, as much as 12% of the U.S. population will at some point in their lives develop a thyroid condition.

The three most common thyroid conditions are nodules, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism. The causes of thyroid disorders are largely unknown. Researchers believe that autoimmune conditions, stress, high cholesterol, and smoking can be factors.

The causes of thyroid disorders are largely unknown; however, stress and smoking may play a part.

Plus, women are statistically five to eight times more likely to develop a thyroid problem than men.

Untreated hypothyroidism in pregnant women can lead to a litany of issues. These issues include miscarriage, preterm delivery, and growth/developmental problems.

Conventional Thyroid Disorder Treatments (Not CBD)

There are many conventional treatment options for thyroid conditions. These treatments often include pharmaceutical medications.

For underactive thyroid, T4 replacement medications like levothyroxine and Synthroid are common. For hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), treatments that reduce hormone secretion are necessary.

These treatments include radioactive iodine and antithyroid drugs like methimazole and propylthiouracil (PTU). While effective, these drugs can cause severe side effects in the liver and immune system.

They are not recommended outside the most necessary of circumstances. Surgery can also be a common treatment method. Surgery may address lumps and masses that occur due to cancers or thyroid nodules.

Living with Thyroid Disorders

Thyroid disorders can cause many different problems within the body and brain. These problems can impact the quality of an individual’s day to day life and can include things like:

  • Extreme weight gain or loss
  • Heavy mood swings (along with anxiety and depression)
  • Reproductive issues (low sex drive, irregular menstrual cycles, etc.)
  • Severe muscle/joint pain
  • Neck swelling
  • Snoring
  • Severe fatigue/energy drain
  • Hoarse or scratchy voice
  • Irregular body temperature (especially the inability to tolerate cold weather)
  • Cognitive issues such as brain fog, poor memory, and an inability to concentrate

Lifestyle changes can sometimes be effective in minimizing these symptomatic conditions. Yet, the thyroid network is a very complex web of cellular machinery. Because of this, it can be difficult to pinpoint how to induce positive changes.

This is why people are beginning to talk about CBD for thyroid disorders. By acting upon the endocannabinoid system, CBD can work to regulate internal homeostasis on the whole-body level.

This is different compared to the isolated chemical pathways that prescription medications manipulate. And products like CBD oil present far fewer side effects than most prescription-strength drugs.

Exploring the advantages and d…

CBD for Thyroid Disorders: What the Studies Are Showing

Most people who use CBD for thyroid disorders often use a single high-quality CBD oil. CBD oil may address a variety of thyroid malfunctions. These malfunctions include hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, goiter, thyroiditis, and thyroid storm. Of course, the question is – how well does it work?

Many people have indicated that their use of CBD oil has produced positive results. There have also been scientific studies suggesting CBD’s regulatory effects on the endocrine gland.

For example, a 2002 study published in the European Journal of Endocrinology proposed evidence of functional cannabinoid receptors in rat thyroids. These receptors appeared to be able to influence both T3 and T4 hormone release. The study also utilized a molecular detection technique called immunohistochemical localization.

The results showed the intracellular presence of cannabinoid receptors. Experts recorded a 30% decrease in hormone release within hours of administration of the synthetic CB1 receptor agonist. CBD is an indirect antagonist of the CB1 receptor. This suggests that it could lead to the reverse outcome.

Also, the general properties of CBD may be able to help with the effects of thyroid disorders. CBD is a powerful anti-inflammatory. Dozens of studies state the role of cannabinoids in reducing organ and tissue inflammation.

More clinical trials can determine how effective CBD is for thyroid disorders. Thus far, research of CBD’s relationship with hormone activity is promising.

Yet, it is not enough to claim the compound as an effective treatment. CBD receptors may play a role in thyroid regulation. However, we need more research to come to this conclusion.

Why CBD for Thyroid – What About ‘Regular’ Marijuana?

If you’re wondering why so many folks are talking about CBD for thyroid disorders and not THC, you’re not alone. Simply put, the overwhelming interest stems from the fact that CBD is non-psychoactive.

In other words, it won’t get you high. Individuals often use cannabis due to its lack of mind-altering effects. They want a natural treatment, but they don’t want to be under the influence.

This is why most CBD products come from industrial hemp – a cannabis plant that contains less than 0.3% THC. When cannabis contains a THC content higher than 0.3%, it is determined to be “marijuana.” This can be confusing as many people use the terms hemp and marijuana interchangeably.

See also  Cbd oil dosage for insomnia vapen

Millions of people worldwide smoke marijuana for its therapeutic benefit. This is the basis of the medical marijuana market. Hemp-based products often boast the benefits of cannabis without the high.

The Bottom Line on CBD for Thyroid Disorders

Doctors, scientists, and medical researchers are looking into CBD as an alternative treatment. More research is necessary to come to any definitive medical conclusions.

Most are choosing to go with high-quality CBD oil as a daily supplement. Oils act as molecular carriers. They are able to “hold” more cannabidiol molecules by volume than other forms of CBD (i.e., gummies or capsules).

CBD oils are also easily ingested and are efficiently absorbed into the body when placed under the tongue and held for 90 seconds.

Determining the proper dosing can be a trial and error process. It’s important to make sure you always read the label on your product and understand how much you’re consuming.

Lastly, it is important to take into consideration the quality of CBD oil you’re using. If you do decide to use CBD oil for a thyroid disorder, understand that not all products are equal. It’s important to look for companies with thorough lab-testing, transparent ingredient lists, and helpful customer service.

In the past several years, the FDA has been trying to crack down on disreputable companies. To help guide you along, we’ve listed a few well-reviewed manufacturers below.

CBD for Hashimoto’s Disease: How Can It Help?

CBD is a powerful and versatile compound; it can help regulate various functions throughout the body, including hormonal balance.

With new research emerging every month, scientists are discovering new health benefits of CBD — but can it be used to treat Hashimoto’s disease and other thyroid conditions?

Most benefits of CBD stem from its modulatory actions on the immune system. Cannabinoid receptors are also found on the surface of hormonal glands, including the thyroid.

If you have Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (or any other autoimmune disease), it means your body is losing the war against an aggressive immune system.

Although there are no direct studies focusing on using CBD for Hashimoto’s, several research papers suggest that it can improve the quality of life of patients with thyroid disorders.

Today, we elaborate on how you can use CBD oil for Hashimoto’s to control its symptoms and regulate your immune system.

What Is Hashimoto’s Disease?

Hashimoto’s disease, also known as chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease of the thyroid gland. It causes a person’s immune system to become aggressive toward the thyroid (autoimmunity), damaging to the point where it can’t produce its own hormones any longer.

Hashimoto’s involves inflammation of the thyroid gland and is the major contributor to hypothyroidism — a condition characterized by an underactive thyroid.

Some patients with Hashimoto’s can develop a goiter, which is a lump on the thyroid triggered by inflammation and causing neck discomfort. One way to diagnose Hashimoto’s is through blood test results that check thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones (FT4 and T4).

Symptoms of Hashimoto’s Disease

Hashimoto’s disease develops more often in women. However, it can occur at any age and even men and children can suffer from it.

The most common symptoms of Hashimoto’s disease include:

  • Fatigue
  • Weight gain
  • Dry skin
  • Puffy face
  • Ple skin
  • Hair loss
  • Pain
  • Sensitivity to cold

The symptoms may not be noticeable at first, but as the disease progresses over the years, their severity will increase — deteriorating your quality of life.

Conventional Treatments for Hashimoto’s (High Risk)

Researchers have yet to find the underlying cause of Hashimoto’s disease and other thyroid disorders. However, the main hypothesis revolves around chronic inflammation caused by an aggressive immune system.

The conventional Hashimoto treatment involves taking levothyroxine, which is a thyroid medication using a specific hormone to level the deficiency in thyroid hormones.

Unfortunately, when you’re prescribed levothyroxine, you usually need to take it for life.

Taking high doses of the drug can have negative side effects, such as osteoporosis or irregular heartbeats (arrhythmia). Your doctor should titrate the medicine appropriately, but most of the time, the dose is gradually increased to the point where another treatment must be considered.

Meanwhile, CBD may offer a theoretically safer way to treat people with Hashimoto’s.

Can CBD Oil Help Treat Hashimoto’s?

CBD is one of over 115 cannabinoids identified in cannabis plants. Unlike the other major cannabinoid, THC, CBD doesn’t cause mind-altering effects when you take it. Researchers have found that cannabinoids, including CBD, offer remarkable anti-inflammatory properties.

A 2010 review of studies published in the journal Future Medicinal Chemistry found that daily supplementation with CBD inhibited disease progression in mice.

The research team learned that CBD decreased the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are known to trigger inflammatory reactions.

Cytokines have been highlighted as one of the contributors to the onset of thyroid diseases, such as Hashimoto’s.

In a 2011 study, the authors concluded that cytokines play an important role in the pathogenesis (formation) of autoimmune disorders in the thyroid. They also found that cytokine modulation may help treat autoimmune conditions.

A 2020 study mentioned CBD and other cannabinoids as potential immunosuppressants due to their ability to block the production of inflammatory cytokines. These properties suggest that CBD — and cannabis in general — may have the potential to curb chronic inflammation in the body.

Another study showed that CBD is involved in regulating inflammatory response and expression by acting on various receptors throughout the body. The authors noted that CBD administration in animals could inhibit the release of excess cytokines.

Since CBD can reduce the number of substances that trigger inflammation, it may theoretically be used as an adjunctive treatment for Hashimoto’s — at least for symptom control.

However, there are no direct studies that would examine CBD’s impact on thyroid disorders, including Hashimoto’s disease. No clinical trials exist to prove the long-term efficacy of CBD for Hashimoto’s as a monotherapy.

How does CBD Work to Help with Hashimoto’s?

In a study published in 2017, the research team mentions that specific receptors in the human body could modulate the production of cytokines. The CB1 and CB2 receptors, which are the components of the endocannabinoid system (ECS), are said to play a part in signaling that influences cytokines.

The ECS promotes and helps to maintain homeostasis throughout the body. It regulates various physiological functions, including inflammation.

CBD influences the ECS structures, particularly the CB2 receptor — which would explain its anti-inflammatory effects.

On top of acting on CB1 and CB2 receptors, CBD may also use other pathways that reduce inflammation.

Meanwhile, the authors of a 2015 study that evaluated the ECS’s role in thyroid tumors found that cannabinoid receptors are linked to tumor malignancy.

They concluded that CB1 and CB2 receptors are potential therapeutic targets for future treatments.

Another study also found that CB1 receptors of the ECS control hormone production in the thyroid.

Thyroid hormones help regulate body temperature, energy, and other important metabolic functions.

Since CBD is the modulator of the ECS, there’s a chance that it can be used to regulate thyroid conditions by acting on its structures.

See also  Is cbd oil legal in nevada for minors

However, more clinical human studies are needed to confirm CBD’s long-term efficacy in treating Hashimoto’s.

5 Reasons to Consider Taking CBD for Hashimoto’s

Looking at the above studies, this may be enough to convince you to try CBD for Hashimoto’s. That being said, there’s more to CBD and thyroid than just symptom control.

After all, conventional treatments are also focused on managing the symptoms of thyroid disorders.

Here’s why you may want to consider taking CBD for Hashimoto’s.

1. Safety Profile

If therapy is effective, that doesn’t mean it’s safe in the long run.

There are plenty of treatments in contemporary medicine which have been shown to be effective — but cause negative side effects.

On the other hand, there are plenty of therapies with the potential to treat Hashimoto’s while being very safe for our health.

The degree of a medication’s safety is referred to as its safety profile.

CBD has an excellent safety profile. Even doses as high as 1,500 mg administered daily for several weeks didn’t cause any dangerous side effects in patients.

The side effects of CBD are benign and include changes in appetite, dry mouth, dizziness, and — in case you took way too much — diarrhea.

Any healthy foods can get you these kinds of side effects if you take them in excess amounts.

According to the WHO, CBD is safe and well-tolerated in humans.

That being said, CBD can interact with many pharmaceutical medications. It can compromise the liver’s ability to metabolize these drugs, resulting in either too low or too high concentrations of the drug in the bloodstream.

If you’re unsure if you can take CBD for Hashimoto’s alongside your thyroid medications, consult a holistic doctor experienced in cannabis use.

2. Additional Benefits Aside from Hashimoto’s

Another reason to consider using CBD oil for Hashimoto’s is its versatility.

Medications are made to impact specific enzymes or receptors and may not interact with any other cellular components.

Unlike medications, herbal extracts like CBD oil can act on several different molecular pathways. CBD has over 65 such targets. It greatly helps one’s health due to its various benefits.

Additional benefits may include:

  • Reduced anxiety thanks to the modulation of GABA, serotonin, and anandamide (Hashimoto’s patients often experience anxiety)
  • Improved sleep as a result of the circadian rhythm regulation (many thyroid patients suffer from insomnia)
  • Reduced pain due to its analgesic properties (people with Hashimoto’s often have chronic pain)
  • Reduced inflammation (inflammation impacts conversion from T4 to T3)

If you have any of these symptoms, you could use CBD oil to improve your overall quality of life with Hashimoto’s.

3. Complementary Effects with Other Treatments

The current treatment paradigm for Hashimoto’s has caused many patients to look for natural alternative therapies because it’s just a standard “wait and see approach.”

As a patient, you don’t want to rely on taking synthetic hormones for life.

The good news is that you can use CBD along with other lifestyle modifications to achieve a better result. When you see the big picture, you’ll notice that Hashimoto’s requires a multifaceted approach, not just some miracle pill.

Changing your diet, reducing your stress, and supplementing CBD oil can help your body get back on track and heal itself from excess inflammation — but they don’t guarantee that you’ll be able to reverse your condition.

They are, however, much safer than conventional methods. Taking CBD oil on a daily basis can help improve the functioning of your ECS — translating into more effective management of vital functions throughout the body.

This, on top of an anti-inflammatory diet, proper stress hygiene, and an active lifestyle, can help you achieve better results for your thyroid health overall.

4. Availability

CBD oil is legal in all 50 states and you can buy it without a prescription — unlike thyroid medications, which must be prescribed by a doctor.

In most cases, patients may know more about their disease and possible treatments than their doctor and yet they’re not able to get the right medication.

Because they are limited by the doctor and the prescription.

If your doctor isn’t willing to prescribe you the medication you’re asking for, your knowledge doesn’t matter.

This problem is nonexistent with CBD and other herbal supplements.

Nevertheless, we still advise you to consult a doctor before adding CBD oil to your daily routine. Doing so will help you find the right dosage to start with — not to mention that you can avoid negative interactions with other medications.

5. Patient Success Stories

Clinical trials are important for evaluating the long-term efficacy and safety of certain medications, but all clinical trials start with anecdotal evidence, better known as success stories of patients.

Both types of evidence have strong value. While clinical studies are very helpful, they don’t always tell the full story. The results can be interpreted in any way that suits the thesis of the study’s author.

Moreover, some clinical trials aren’t published, so we don’t always get to see their results. The author simply doesn’t have to publish the study if it doesn’t show the results they were looking for.

Some studies can be run 3-4 times until they finally yield satisfying results.

Last but not least, just because studies show that something is effective doesn’t mean it will work for every individual.

Doctors are often excited about novel therapies when they read about them in scientific magazines only to find out that they’re not nearly as effective as they believe them to be in the real world.

When it comes to patient success stories, they take a different approach.

There are no controls that clinical studies can provide but they still provide value as a “proof of concept.”

Are there any direct studies on the effectiveness of CBD for Hashimoto’s?

Do we see positive stories of patients who have taken it and seen great results?

The so-called anecdotal evidence often provides inspiration for clinical trials.

How to Choose CBD Oil for Hashimoto’s

CBD can be found in three major types: full-spectrum, broad-spectrum, and CBD isolate.

The full-spectrum type of CBD is the most popular because it contains cannabinoids, flavonoids, terpenes, and trace amounts of THC. Together, these compounds create the entourage effect, which means that the plant-based compounds work together in synergy — producing greater therapeutic effects than each of them alone.

Broad-spectrum CBD is another popular type. This option contains the same compounds as full-spectrum CBD — except for the THC content.

The third variant is CBD isolate. This is just pure CBD in crystalline or powdered form. It carries the highest dose of CBD per serving; it’s also odorless and flavorless, which is why some people prefer it over the two above formats. That being said, CBD isolates lack the entourage effect, so they are less desired among consumers.

Tips for Buying CBD Oil for Hashimoto’s

  • Look for a certificate of analysis (COA) for the chosen product. This document shows that the product has undergone proper testing and its contents match the ones that are listed on the label.
  • Read product reviews and do a solid background check on your potential vendor. If buying from a local store, make sure to check if it has the proper authorization to sell CBD extracts.
  • The best CBD oils for Hashimoto’s are made from organic hemp; it’s the most dependable source of high-quality CBD.
  • Ensure that there are no limits to the availability of CBD in your state. Hemp-derived CBD is federally legal but the state laws are dynamic, so it’s always worth it to keep yourself up to date with your local regulations surrounding cannabis.
  • Consult a holistic doctor, preferably someone experienced in cannabis use, before buying CBD products.
See also  Does cbd oil really work for anxiety and ocd

CBD Dosage for Hashimoto’s

Since CBD isn’t regulated by the FDA, there are no official dosage guidelines when it comes to using CBD for Hashimoto’s, or any other condition for that matter.

There are a few factors you should consider when determining your dose of CBD, including:

  • Bodyweight
  • Age
  • Metabolism
  • Tolerance to CBD
  • Severity of symptoms
  • Expected results

The best approach to starting your CBD regime is to take a small amount of CBD (5 or 10 mg) and gradually increase it until you come to the point where you experience the desired results without any side effects.

You can also use different studies on CBD for specific symptoms to analyze different dosages try them out on yourself.

How to Take CBD for Hashimoto’s

CBD is available in many different forms, including CBD oils, edibles, capsules, vapes, and topicals.

Beginners often choose edibles or capsules because they contain a fixed dose of CBD per serving. Since oral forms of CBD need to pass through the digestive system, they have a delayed onset (up to 90 minutes) but last longer than other forms (up to 10 hours).

More experienced users turn to CBD oil because it combines dosage accuracy with a higher bioavailability and faster onset. CBD oils absorb through the mucous membrane in your mouth, avoiding the first-pass metabolism in the liver. As a result, your body receives more active ingredients. The CBD also acts faster (15-30 minutes) lasting for up to 6 hours.

Vaporization offers the fastest and most effective way to consume CBD. When you inhale CBD through a vape pen, it travels to your bloodstream through lung tissues — producing almost instantaneous effects. Vapes have the highest bioavailability (56%) and they last for up to 4 hours.

For localized problems, such as inflammatory flare-ups, you can use CBD topicals such as creams, balms, lotions, or gels. They target the CB2 receptors in your skin, providing relief from inflammation and pain. The absorption rate and duration of topicals vary between different formulations.

CBD vs Other Natural Remedies for Hashimoto’s

Diet modifications are one of the first steps that a person with Hashimoto’s should take. This includes choosing animal foods rich in zinc, as well as fruits and vegetables.

Vegetables contain phytosterols, which are anti-inflammatory compounds. Low-calorie fruits have high levels of antioxidants and can help the body recover from the damage caused by inflammation.

Animal-based foods high in zinc, such as meats and eggs, are recommended several times a week. Zinc deficiency is often cited as one of the causes of hypothyroid conditions.

Iodine supplements are another possible option, but they need to be taken in the right form, as certain forms of iodine can be toxic for the body and actually exacerbate your condition.

Other Types of Thyroid Disorders

Aside from Hashimoto’s disease, people can suffer from one of the following thyroid conditions that are triggered by the chronic inflammation of this gland:

Hyperthyroidism

Hyperthyroidism occurs where the gland produces more hormones than the body actually needs. Excessive thyroid hormone production can result in symptoms such as irritability, fast heart rate, weight loss, muscle weakness, and nervousness.

Grave’s Disease

Grave’s Disease is another thyroid disorder that occurs when a person’s immune system attacks the thyroid gland by accident. This leads to the production of excess thyroid antibodies.

People with Grave’s disease often have high blood pressure and increased metabolism as a result of enlarged thyroid glands.

Key Takeaways on Using CBD for Hashimoto’s

CBD has been shown to reduce inflammation and pain, showing as a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of Hashimoto’s disease.

There is some evidence to support the use of CBD in reducing chronic inflammation associated with thyroid conditions. Several studies have shown that CBD may block the excess activation of the immune system by inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory proteins.

Researchers believe that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is involved in regulating the activity of hormonal glands — including the thyroid. By modulating cannabinoid receptors, CBD can act as an adaptogen — adjusting the production of thyroid hormones.

More clinical trials are needed to confirm CBD’s efficacy for Hashimoto in the long run, but current findings are very promising, to say the least.

You can also use CBD oil to help with other symptoms associated with Hashimoto’s, including anxiety, pain, sleep problems, and low energy levels.

Always consult a doctor before buying a CBD product for any condition. Doing so will help you figure out the best CBD dosage for your situation and avoid potential CBD-drug interactions.

Do you take CBD for Hashimoto’s? Let us know by leaving a comment below!

References:

  1. Nagarkatti, P., Pandey, R., Rieder, S. A., Hegde, V. L., & Nagarkatti, M. (2009). Cannabinoids as novel anti-inflammatory drugs. Future medicinal chemistry, 1(7), 1333–1349. (1)
  2. Ganesh, B. B., Bhattacharya, P., Gopisetty, A., & Prabhakar, B. S. (2011). Role of cytokines in the pathogenesis and suppression of thyroid autoimmunity. Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research, 31(10), 721–731. (2)
  3. Khodadadi, H., Salles, É. L., Jarrahi, A., Chibane, F., Costigliola, V., Yu, J. C., Vaibhav, K., Hess, D. C., Dhandapani, K. M., & Baban, B. (2020). Cannabidiol Modulates Cytokine Storm in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Induced by Simulated Viral Infection Using Synthetic RNA. Cannabis and cannabinoid research, 5(3), 197–201. (3)
  4. Atalay, S., Jarocka-Karpowicz, I., & Skrzydlewska, E. (2019). Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Cannabidiol. Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 9(1), 21.
  5. Fitzgerald, J. C., Weiss, S. L., Maude, S. L., Barrett, D. M., Lacey, S. F., Melenhorst, J. J., Shaw, P., Berg, R. A., June, C. H., Porter, D. L., Frey, N. V., Grupp, S. A., & Teachey, D. T. (2017). Cytokine Release Syndrome After Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Critical care medicine, 45(2), e124–e131.
  6. Lakiotaki, E., Giaginis, C., Tolia, M., Alexandrou, P., Delladetsima, I., Giannopoulou, I., Kyrgias, G., Patsouris, E., & Theocharis, S. (2015). Clinical Significance of Cannabinoid Receptors CB1 and CB2 Expression in Human Malignant and Benign Thyroid Lesions. BioMed research international, 2015, 839403. (6)
  7. Hillard C. J. (2015). Endocannabinoids and the Endocrine System in Health and Disease. Handbook of experimental pharmacology, 231, 317–339. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-20825-1_11 (7)
Nina Julia

Nina created CFAH.org following the birth of her second child. She was a science and math teacher for 6 years prior to becoming a parent — teaching in schools in White Plains, New York and later in Paterson, New Jersey.

Leave a comment Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.