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Consensus recommendations on dosing and administration of medical cannabis to treat chronic pain: results of a modified Delphi process

Globally, medical cannabis legalization has increased in recent years and medical cannabis is commonly used to treat chronic pain. However, there are few randomized control trials studying medical cannabis indicating expert guidance on how to dose and administer medical cannabis safely and effectively is needed.

Methods

Using a multistage modified Delphi process, twenty global experts across nine countries developed consensus-based recommendations on how to dose and administer medical cannabis in patients with chronic pain.

Results

There was consensus that medical cannabis may be considered for patients experiencing neuropathic, inflammatory, nociplastic, and mixed pain. Three treatment protocols were developed. A routine protocol where the clinician initiates the patient on a CBD-predominant variety at a dose of 5 mg CBD twice daily and titrates the CBD-predominant dose by 10 mg every 2 to 3 days until the patient reaches their goals, or up to 40 mg/day. At a CBD-predominant dose of 40 mg/day, clinicians may consider adding THC at 2.5 mg and titrate by 2.5 mg every 2 to 7 days until a maximum daily dose of 40 mg/day of THC. A conservative protocol where the clinician initiates the patient on a CBD-predominant variety at a dose of 5 mg once daily and titrates the CBD-predominant dose by 10 mg every 2 to 3 days until the patient reaches their goals, or up to 40 mg/day. At a CBD-predominant dose of 40 mg/day, clinicians may consider adding THC at 1 mg/day and titrate by 1 mg every 7 days until a maximum daily dose of 40 mg/day of THC. A rapid protocol where the clinician initiates the patient on a balanced THC:CBD variety at 2.5–5 mg of each cannabinoid once or twice daily and titrates by 2.5–5 mg of each cannabinoid every 2 to 3 days until the patient reaches his/her goals or to a maximum THC dose of 40 mg/day.

Conclusions

In summary, using a modified Delphi process, expert consensus-based recommendations were developed on how to dose and administer medical cannabis for the treatment of patients with chronic pain.

Background

Cannabis is being legalized and/or decriminalized across the globe and hundreds of thousands of patients are currently being treated with medical cannabis (Abuhasira et al. 2018; Lintzeris et al. 2020). Patient-reported data indicate that chronic pain management is one of the most common reasons for medical cannabis use (Reiman et al. 2017; Boehnke et al. 2019; Kosiba et al. 2019; Azcarate et al. 2020). Chronic pain affects close to 2 billion people worldwide and is associated with impairment in physical and emotional function, reduced participation in social and vocational activities, and lower perceived quality of life (Dueñas et al. 2016; Hylands-White et al. 2017; Vos et al. 2017). In patients with chronic pain, medical cannabis treatment has been associated with an improvement in pain-related outcomes, increased quality of life, improved function, and a reduced requirement for opioid analgesia (Abrams et al. 2011; Haroutounian et al. 2016; National Academies of Sciences 2017; Cooper et al. 2018; Rod 2019; Sagy et al. 2019; Johal et al. 2020; Safakish et al. 2020; Okusanya et al. 2020).

Despite the increased global use of medical cannabis to manage pain, systematic reviews and meta-analyses report low to substantial levels of evidence to support the use of cannabis and cannabinoids for the treatment of chronic pain (Russo 2007; Whiting et al. 2015; Allan et al. 2018; National Academies of Sciences 2017; Stockings et al. 2018; Mücke et al. 2018; Häuser et al. 2018; Johal et al. 2020; Safakish et al. 2020; Okusanya et al. 2020). Explanations as to why some describe the level of evidence is low may include limited availability of investigational products due to legal status, lack of standardization of cannabis products, lack of standardization of product administration, and overemphasis on pain scores to define efficacy. However, despite the low to moderate level of evidence, patients are being treated with medical cannabis across the world.

Therefore, the lack of randomized control trial evidence combined with the practical reality that patients are receiving a pharmaceutically active drug creates an atypical clinical scenario that necessitates expert guidance from experienced clinicians on how to safely and, perhaps, effectively dose and administer medical cannabis.

The recommendations presented herein were developed as practical guidance for clinicians who may have limited experience with prescribing or recommending (if patient is in USA) medical cannabis. It is important to note that every patient is different and medical cannabis treatment, like most other therapies, should be individualized to the patient. Shared treatment decision-making with the patient is important and establishing treatment goals during the initial medical consultation may enhance patient outcomes and adherence to medical cannabis treatment. The intent is to provide clinicians with safe and effective medical cannabis prescribing protocols, which may be considered when a clinician decides to include medical cannabis in a patient’s treatment regimen.

Methods

To address the unmet need for clinical guidance on the safe and effective use of medical cannabis for chronic pain, and to build on previous recommendations from MacCallum and Russo (2018) and Boehnke and Clauw (2019), we developed a modified Delphi process (Dalkey and Helmer 1963; Dalkey 1969; Saad et al. 2019; Oude Voshaar et al. 2019) to establish expert consensus-based recommendations on the dosage and administration of medical cannabis (Fig. 1). The modified Delphi process has been used extensively in health care settings to provide consensus-based recommendations on important clinical questions where randomized control trial data is lacking (Hasson et al. 2000).

Timeline and Flow of modified Delphi process

A global task force of twenty individuals was recruited based on extensive clinical experience and/or high academic interest in prescribing and managing patients on medical cannabis for the treatment of chronic pain (Table 1). The panel was selected based on clinical experience prescribing medical cannabis, research with medical cannabis, and a focus on inclusion of representatives from different countries. Upon recruitment, the task force participants completed a practice patterns survey (Additional file 1) to gain insights into how clinicians around the world were treating patients with medical cannabis. After the practice profile was completed, nine recent articles were provided to the task force (Habib and Artul 2018; Banerjee and McCormack 2019; Crawley et al. 2019; Maher et al. 2019; Boyaji et al. 2020; Johal et al. 2020; Montero-Oleas et al. 2020; Wong et al. 2020; Gulbransen et al. 2020). An initial draft of 37 consensus questions was developed based on the practice patterns survey and reviewed for rationale and applicability to clinical practice by a nine-member scientific committee. After review and scientific committee approval, an updated version was distributed to the other task force participants for their review of its rationale and applicability.

Table 1 Global task force on medical cannabis dosing and administration for treatment of chronic pain

Once the full task force had reviewed all questions and proposed answers, and all comments had been incorporated; the first round of voting took place on 63 questions using an online survey (Qualtrics, Provo, Utah; (Additional file 2) with the following rules in place:

For multiple choice questions, consensus is found if ≥ 75% of the responses support one answer. For ranking questions, consensus is found if ≥ 75% of the responses are agree/strongly agree or disagree/strongly disagree. This consensus threshold is similar to previous studies using a modified Delphi method (Diamond et al. 2014; Gillessen et al. 2018).

There was an “abstain” option for all questions.

For the purposes of this document, medical cannabis refers to CBD and THC extracted from a cannabis plant.

The dosing and administration protocol was focused on oral preparations (oils and gel capsules) to support harm reduction from smoking and/or e-vaping (Tashkin 2013; Sangmo et al. 2020), and to nullify the risk of e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (Layden et al. 2019).

It was stressed that clinicians would need to customize the recommendations based on availability and regulations in their region of practice.

The first round of voting established consensus on several topics including the rationale for using medical cannabis, the type of pain medical cannabis could be used to treat, age limitations for CBD, when medical cannabis should be avoided, and what the patient goals of using medical cannabis could be. This first round of voting indicated that the task force members were using medical cannabis for similar patient profiles, but dosing and administration protocols were different. The consensus questions were then revised to focus on key remaining elements, and 55 questions were considered for the second round of voting using online surveys (Additional file 3).

Following analysis of the first two rounds of voting, intended live meeting discussion topics were narrowed down. However, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the live meeting was converted to a virtual format. Over two virtual meetings, 31 questions were voted on through Zoom Meeting polling software (Zoom Video Communications, San Jose, California, Additional files 4 and 5). The key topics for discussion surrounded the dosing and administration procedures across the different medical cannabis treatment protocols. The other two sections for discussion were breakthrough pain and follow-up recommendations. The task force was encouraged to discuss the question before voting to find common ground if possible.

Phrasing of questions was refined over the rounds of review and voting based on task force feedback. At least 16 members of the task force voted at each of the steps. The reader is directed to Additional file 2, 3, 4 and 5 for all voting results.

Role of funding source

This work was funded by Spectrum Therapeutics. Spectrum Therapeutics is the medical division of Canopy Growth Corporation, which sells both medical and recreational cannabis. The funder influenced the selection of the task force, and all authors declare they have received funding from Spectrum (Additional file 6). However, the funder had no influence on the design and conduct of the voting and discussions; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, approval of the manuscript; or decision to submit the manuscript for publication. The sponsor was provided the opportunity to review the manuscript for medical and scientific accuracy and did not suggest any changes to the manuscript.

Results

Dosing and administration of medical cannabis to treat patients with chronic pain

During the Delphi voting, three streams of oral dosing and administration recommendations based on patient need evolved: Routine, Conservative, and Rapid (Figs. 2, 3, and 4). The protocols were developed with a focus on safety and what experienced prescribers observe in their practice to be effective. For each protocol, a starting cannabinoid type was voted on, followed by a titration protocol up to a maximum daily dose recommendation. If necessary, the clinician may consider moving a patient between protocols to individualize the patient’s treatment plan. There was a consensus that medical cannabis may be considered for the treatment of neuropathic pain, inflammatory pain, nociplastic pain, and mixed pain (Sihota et al. 2020). Clinicians should titrate and manage the dosing regimen to reach patient treatment goals, which may be varied and therefore individualized (Table 2).

Routine protocol for medical cannabis dosing and administration

Conservative protocol for medical cannabis dosing and administration

Rapid protocol for medical cannabis dosing and administration

Routine protocol for medical cannabis dosing and administration

The routine protocol is recommended for most patients (Fig. 2). The Delphi process led to agreement that a patient may initiate with 5 mg twice daily (bid) of a CBD-predominant strain and up-titrate by 10 mg/day (5 mg CBD bid) every 2–3 days up to 40 mg CBD per day. A key reason for choosing to initiate with a CBD-predominant variety was to prioritize safety as CBD is highly tolerable, does not induce euphoria, and has a low risk for adverse effects (Taylor et al. 2018; Larsen and Shahinas 2020). In addition, many CBD-predominant preparations contain a small percentage of THC (Bonn-Miller et al. 2017; Lachenmeier et al. 2020). It was decided that the maximum amount of THC allowed in a CBD-predominant product to be considered for these protocols would be 1:10 THC to CBD. Many global CBD-predominate products contain 0.–2% THC (Bonn-Miller et al. 2017; Corroon et al. 2020; Lachenmeier et al. 2020).

If 40 mg/day CBD-predominant dose does not reach treatment goals, clinicians may consider initiating 2.5 mg of THC per day and titrate by 2.5 mg THC every 2–7 days up to 40 mg/day while maintaining the same CBD-predominant dose. It is recommended to seek expert consultation if considering going above 40 mg/day THC. The THC titration frequency of 2–7 days is a large range to promote tailoring to the patient’s needs.

Clinicians are encouraged to titrate medical cannabis to the effects desired by each patient, as opposed to a specific CBD or THC dose. During the titration phase, the total daily dose of CBD and/or THC can be divided between two to four administrations.

Conservative protocol for dosing and administration of medical cannabis

The conservative protocol is recommended for patients who may be more sensitive to drug effects (Fig. 3). Clinically frail patients, those with complex comorbidities, polypharmacy, and/or mental health disorders may also be appropriate for the conservative approach. It was agreed a patient may start on a 5 mg once daily dose of a CBD-predominant strain and up-titrate by 5–10 mg every 2–3 days up to 40 mg CBD per day, leveraging twice daily administration when needed. If treatment goals have not been met by 40 mg/day CBD-predominant dose, consider initiating 1 mg of THC and titrating by 1 mg once per week up to 40 mg/day of THC while keeping the same CBD dose. The patient may need a higher THC dose and moving them into the routine stream may be necessary. It is recommended to seek expert consultation if the clinician and patient are considering exceeding 40 mg of THC.

Rapid protocol for dosing and administration of medical cannabis

The rapid treatment protocol may be considered for patients requiring urgent management of severe pain, palliation, and for those with significant prior use of cannabis (Fig. 4). For patients in palliative care, caution is advised when choosing the medical cannabis protocol as these patients may have higher frailty and a higher risk of terminal delirium, which would make them suitable for the conservative approach as well.

It was agreed that a patient should start on a balanced THC:CBD product of 2.5–5 mg of each cannabinoid once or twice daily and up-titrate every 2–3 days by 2.5–5 mg/day of each cannabinoid until patient goals are met, or to 40 mg THC. If choosing to initiate twice daily with a balanced product, the lower doses would be more appropriate to consider at the beginning. The recommendation to seek expert consultation at 40 mg of THC is also present in the rapid protocol. When considering patients with neuropathic pain, products that contain THC may be more suitable (Andreae et al. 2015; Longo et al. 2020).

Medical cannabis treatment for breakthrough pain

In patient scenarios where breakthrough pain is common, inhaled medical cannabis can be considered due to the more rapid onset of action and limited duration of action (Huestis 2007). Dried flower vaporization is the preferred mode of administration as opposed to smoking or vaporization of cannabis extracts in an electronic cigarette device (e-vaping), as smoking and e-vaping carry significant health risks. Smoking cannabis is associated with inflammation of the airways and chronic cannabis smokers may experience a heightened risk for bronchitis, respiratory infections, and pneumonia (Tashkin 2013; Volkow et al. 2014; Owen et al. 2014). E-vaping of THC containing products has been associated with a relatively novel but grave lung disease known as e-cigarette or vaping product use-associated lung injury (EVALI) (Layden et al. 2019; King et al. 2020).

When using medical cannabis to manage breakthrough pain, a balanced THC:CBD or THC-predominant product may be used as needed (prn). Clinicians could also consider that breakthrough pain may be suppressed by increasing the dose or frequency of the scheduled oral medical cannabis treatment.

Follow-up and discontinuation considerations

At the initiation of medical cannabis treatment, clinicians may consider following the patient every 2–4 weeks (Table 3). In individual patients, more frequent follow-up may be needed, particularly at the beginning of the medical cannabis treatment. Once the patient is at a stable dose or sufficiently knowledgeable with medical cannabis dosing and titration, follow-up may occur once every 3 months or even longer thereafter. However, adherence to local jurisdictional guidance may dictate follow-up frequency. The follow-up and discontinuation recommendations were consistent across the three protocols. Discontinuation of medical cannabis treatment should occur if the patient experiences intolerable, moderate, or severe cannabis-related adverse effects, the maximum agreed upon dose is reached and does not benefit the patient, and/or the patient has misuse or diversion associated with cannabis. Reporting of adverse events should be congruent with regional regulatory requirements.

Additional safety considerations for medical cannabis use

Patients who should avoid medical cannabis

There was consensus that individuals with psychotic disorders, unstable cardiovascular disorders, who are pregnant, who are planning to become pregnant, and/or who are breastfeeding, should avoid medical cannabis, similar to previous guidance documents ([CSL STYLE ERROR: reference with no printed form.]; National Academies of Sciences 2017; Canadian Medical Association 2020). The contraindications associated with medical cannabis are more closely linked to THC, but as discussed, CBD-predominant products may contain THC.

Age ranges

There was consensus for no minimum or maximum age limitation for CBD. Although it was agreed no upper age limit for THC use was necessary, there was debate regarding the minimum age recommendation for THC use, but no consensus was found. It has been reported that the human nervous system is not fully developed until 25 years of age, but different jurisdictions around the world have put varying age limits in place (Arain et al. 2013; Casey et al. 2013). In addition, it is unknown whether treatment with medical cannabis supervised by a physician influences brain development in minors. The recommendation for age limits therefore is to follow the local government regulations and consider the clinical risk-benefit ratio to each individual patient.

Drug-drug interactions

Drug-drug interactions should be considered (Balachandran et al. 2021). THC is a substrate of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 while CBD is a substrate of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 (Antoniou et al. 2020) CBD and THC may also inhibit or stimulate drug transporter P-glycoprotein (Zhu et al. 2006). Direct-acting oral anticoagulants all contain warnings to avoid use with drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein. Caution is strongly encouraged when coadministering medical cannabis with direct-acting anticoagulants ( XARELTO® (rivaroxaban), 2020; https://www.pfizer.ca/sites/default/files/201910/ELIQUIS_PM_229267_07Oct2019_Marketed_E.pdf, 2020; https://www.boehringer-ingelheim.ca/sites/ca/files/documents/pradaxapmen.pdf, 2020), warfarin (Yamreudeewong et al. 2009; Yamaori et al. 2012), drugs metabolized by CYP2C19 (e.g., clopidogrel (Kazui et al. 2010) and clobazam (Geffrey et al. 2015; Cox et al. 2019), checkpoint inhibitors (e.g., PD-1 (Taha et al. 2019), and immunotherapy agents (e.g., tacrolimus (Leino et al. 2019). In addition, awareness around the potential reduced efficacy of theophylline and clozapine is important (Cox et al. 2019).

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Discussion

The modified Delphi process led to the development of three treatment protocols to support dosing and administration of medical cannabis in patients with chronic pain. The clinician may consider moving patients across the streams as a means to tailor the approach. Patient participation in the treatment decisions may enhance adherence and the likelihood of improved patient outcomes. The clinical success of medical cannabis should not be limited to pain scores and should consider improvements in function and quality of life.

Routine CBD dosing and administration

There was considerable debate around the starting cannabinoid type for routine dosing. It was not until the last round of voting that the group reached consensus to start with a CBD-predominant strain. A deciding factor was ultimately the safety profile of CBD. Purified CBD has been shown to be safe and well tolerated up to 6000 mg (Taylor et al. 2018). CBD at doses ranging from 10 to 20 mg/kg/day is effective as an add-on therapy to reduce refractory seizures in two pediatric populations, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, and Dravet syndrome (Lattanzi et al. 2018). CBD has also been studied in social anxiety where CBD doses ranging from 25 to 600 mg per day has been shown to be effective, as reviewed in Skelley et al. (2020). Our recommendations are much lower than those used in reducing seizures and are at the lowest end of dosing for social anxiety.

There are some data to suggest that CBD may support pain relief and quality of life. In a recent patient-reported outcomes audit study from New Zealand (n = 400), CBD was well-tolerated and improved pain outcomes and quality of life (Gulbransen et al. 2020). The CBD doses used in this study ranged from 40 to 300 mg/day, but there was no statistical association between CBD dose and patient-reported benefit. In a single-arm prospective cohort study investigating the effect of CBD from hemp on opioid use over 8 weeks, CBD reduced opioid use and improved quality of life (Capano et al. 2019). In this study, over 90% of the participants used a dose of 30 mg/day CBD. In a commissioned review by the Australian government, CBD below 60 mg/day was deemed tolerable and safe (Goods Administration 2020). In line with these publications, our Delphi process with global experts in medical cannabis led to the recommendation that in the absence of achieving treatment goals by 40 mg/day of CBD, THC should be considered.

Another deciding factor in choosing CBD-predominant as the initiating product was the fact that many CBD-predominant preparations contain a small percentage of THC (Bonn-Miller et al. 2017; Lachenmeier et al. 2020). If the ratio of THC to CBD is 1:20, a patient taking 40 mg of a CBD-predominant product is also receiving 2 mg of THC. Two milligrams of THC is close to the recommended initiating dose of 2.5 mg. Unexpectedly, experiencing the psychotropic effects of THC may be undesirable for the patient, and treating clinicians should always be aware of the THC concentration within any given product.

Unlike THC, the mechanism of action of CBD is not believed to be primarily through its binding to the cannabinoid receptor. CBD is thought to exert its action on G-coupled protein receptors, transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, reducing intracellular transporters of endocannabinoids, and decreasing metabolism of endocannabinoids through its interaction with the enzyme FAAH and the P450 isoenzyme system (Mlost et al. 2020). CBD has a wide spectrum of biological activity, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity (Atalay et al. 2020). Through these mechanisms of action, CBD is thought to improve symptoms in a variety of chronic pain conditions (Mlost et al. 2020). Preclinical trials have demonstrated a potential anti-nociceptive effect of CBD and when combined with other compounds in several pain-related diseases (Atalay et al. 2020; Mlost et al. 2020).

The 40 mg/day dose of a CBD-predominant strain before adding THC is lower than the CBD doses recommended by Boehske and Clauw (2019). However, the cost of CBD may restrict the use of CBD at high doses (Gulbransen et al. 2020). Moving forward, purified isolates of CBD will likely become more available such that the concern around THC inclusion with CBD-predominant product will be unnecessary.

Sihota et al. recently examined how to use medical cannabis to support opioid tapering (Sihota et al. 2020). The modified Delphi process was also applied in this report to pragmatically align on how to titrate medical cannabis while reducing the opioid dose. This report differs from the present report as we did not specifically consider opioid sparing but considered all patients living with chronic pain. However, similar recommendations on how to dose and administer medical cannabis were observed across the two studies, i.e., start with CBD and titrate THC for most patients. The main difference between the two studies is that the medical cannabis recommendations for opioid tapering are larger in range, while we have provided three titration protocols that may be used depending on the patient. It is encouraging that two Delphi processes resulted in similar recommendations.

Routine THC dosing and administration

In line with two previous clinical dosing and administration recommendation documents (MacCallum and Russo 2018; Boehnke and Clauw 2019), it was agreed that an initiating THC dose of 2.5 mg was appropriate. A large number of studies in various indications, including chronic pain, have observed that in most patients, the analgesic effects of THC start between 2 and 2.5 mg THC (Beal et al. 1995). It is important to note that analgesic effects of THC in chronic neuropathic pain in humans have been shown to occur at plasma levels well below those associated with euphoria (Ware et al. 2010; Wallace et al. 2020). Therefore, the patient may not need to experience the psychotropic effects of THC to achieve pain relief. However, before considering THC, clinicians should review local jurisdictional regulations on THC, as local guidance on THC may differ from CBD and require additional attention.

There was consensus that the daily dose of THC should not exceed 40 mg unless coupled with expert consultation. As the initiating dose is 2.5 mg, the clinician should titrate slowly with THC and ensure the patient is comfortable with each increasing dose. If considering THC above 40 mg, a consult with a cannabinoid specialist or an experienced medical cannabis clinician is highly recommended as tolerance to cannabis may be developing (Nguyen et al. 2018; Wilkerson et al. 2019).

When considering the pharmacodynamics of orally ingested THC, a recent crossover study examining 17 healthy adults who had not consumed recreational or medical cannabis for at least 60 days, completed four experimental sessions where they ingested 0, 10, 25, or 50 mg of THC (Schlienz et al. 2020). Subjective effects, vital signs, cognitive/psychomotor performance, and blood THC concentrations were assessed before, and then every 30 min for 8 h post ingestion. The 10 mg THC dose produced subjective drug effects and elevated heart rate but did not impact cognitive/psychomotor performance. The 25 and 50 mg doses of THC elicited pronounced subjective effects and impaired cognitive and psychomotor functioning compared to placebo. Subject-reported “good drug effect” was similar between the three doses, but the risk of “bad drug effect” increased with the 25 and 50 mg of THC doses. Although there is wide variation, when considering the majority of patients, 10 mg of THC per day is a typical therapeutic dose. If necessary, the tentative maximum daily dose of 40 mg is still safe but is unlikely to be needed often.

When orally administering THC, the pharmacodynamic effects may begin as early as 30 min and continue to rise between 1 and 3 h post ingestion (Grotenhermen 2003; Schlienz et al. 2020). This coincides with whole blood THC concentrations peaking at 1 h (Schlienz et al. 2020). The delay of drug effect when orally ingesting THC and duration of effect are important considerations for patients being treated with medical cannabis. Oral cannabis products (e.g., edibles) are responsible for the majority of emergency room visits related to cannabis intoxication, and understanding when and how long to expect a drug effect may help prevent accidental intoxication (Hudak et al. 2015; Barrus et al. 2016; Monte et al. 2019).

Conservative THC dosing and titration

The conservative protocol was developed to be lower and slower than routine with a focus on prevention of side effects and creating comfort with medical cannabis. The initiating and titrating doses of THC are different between the conservative and routine dosing and administration protocols as there may be concern with the psychotropic effects of THC. Our Delphi process led to agreement that 1 mg THC should be considered as the initiating dose, which is consistent with the lowest range set out in the Boehnke and Clauw guidance document (Boehnke and Clauw 2019). The tentative maximum dose of 40 mg THC for conservative regimen is the same as routine. There was discussion on the importance of exercising caution regarding the rate at which THC is titrated, but not the maximum THC dose.

Medical cannabis safety considerations

The predicted median lethal dose (LD50) for THC is > 1000-fold higher than the effective dose (Thompson et al. 1973; World Health Organization 2012). Unlike opioids, there are limited cannabinoid receptors in the brain stem areas that control vital functions such as respiration (Herkenham et al. 1990). Following oral administration, the LD50 of THC is 800 mg/kg in rats, 3000 mg/kg in dogs, and up to 9000 mg/kg in monkeys. A lethal THC dose for a 70-kg human is therefore estimated at approximately 4000 mg/kg of THC, which is a dose of 280,000 mg THC and likely unachievable with oral consumption, smoking, or vaporization (World Health Organization 2012). Clinicians may feel comfortable with tailoring the medical cannabis treatment regimen knowing that patients are not at a significant overdose death risk. However, cannabis-associated health risks including Cannabis Use Disorder and complications resulting from the psychoactive effects of THC need to be considered, even at low doses (Adam et al. 2020). This concept is important for the operation of motor vehicles, as well as occupational and recreational hazardous activity. When adding THC, the clinician may consider starting the first dose in the evening to limit potential issues with workplace functioning and driving. In addition, THC at night may support sleep quality and many patients with chronic pain suffer from sleep disturbances. Patients often experience an improvement in function as a result of improved sleep quality when treated with medical cannabis (Sanford et al. 2008; Bachhuber et al. 2019). However, the role of medical cannabis and sleep is currently being tested in a placebo-controlled randomized control trial (Suraev et al. 2020).

Conclusions

In summary, this modified Delphi process, led by global experts in the field of medical cannabis/cannabinoid medicine, resulted in the development of three protocols for the dosing and administration of medical cannabis to treat chronic pain. We hope that these recommendations will support clinicians and patients in achieving safe and effective dosing and administration of medical cannabis. Future randomized control trials examining the safety and efficacy of medical cannabis compared against current standards of care will be required to elucidate whether the developed protocols result in improved patient outcomes. The recommendations provided will be updated as new clinical trial evidence becomes available to inform on the type of dosing and mode of administration of medical cannabis for the treatment of chronic pain.

5 Best CBD Oil for Pain & Inflammation: 2022 Update

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All in all, CBD oil has many applications that can benefit patients suffering from chronic pain and other debilitating conditions. It is safe, non-addictive, natural, and can be used for a variety of ailments based on what we’ve read in customer reviews and other scientific studies online. Now that you know a little more about CBD oil, we’ll dig deeper into this topic to help you better understand why you should try the best CBD oils for pain & inflammation in 2022.

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5 Best CBD Oils for Pain & Inflammation in 2022

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1. Colorado Botanicals

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3. R+R Medicinals

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4. BATCH CBD

Image courtesy Batch CBD

BATCH CBD is a hemp-derived CBD oil that comes in five different strengths ranging from 250mg to 5,000mg. The company offers one of the strongest lines of products on the market with their 10,000mg version containing up to 50% CBD concentration.

BATCH CBD uses CO2 extraction when making its full-spectrum CBD oil to preserve all the beneficial terpenes found in hemp. BATCH CBD’s non-GMO, vegan friendly oils are free of pesticides and herbicides and are 100% THC FREE.

BATCH CBD offers a money back guarantee on their products. Plus they offer free shipping on orders over $15 across the US.

5. Verma Farms

Image courtesy Verma Farms

Our next CBD oil for pain & inflammation in 2022 is Verma Farms. This company specializes in CBD oil for pain relief, anxiety, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and more. Plus their products can be used by both humans and pets. Their unique tincture allows the product to absorb under the tongue for quick results.

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Verma Farms offers a variety of CBD oil products including pet treats, tinctures, and salves. Their full-spectrum hemp oil is made from organically grown hemp plants that don’t require any pesticides or herbicides to grow. Plus they have a guaranteed 3rd party laboratory test on each product, so you know exactly what you’re getting.

Verma Farms’ organic oils are free of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers, so you can rest assured that what you’re ingesting is 100% natural. To reduce the chance of any negative side effects, Verma Farms recommends starting with a low dose first.

6. Bonus: cbdMD

Image courtesy cbdMD

Last, but not least for oil for pain & inflammation in 2022 is cbdMD. They offer full-spectrum CBD oils and come highly recommended by thousands of customers online.

cbdMD’s line of products includes soft gels, topical salves, and oral tinctures that you can take sublingually. Find them at your local vitamin store. The company promises the best quality CBD oils around, with an emphasis on getting their products tested by third-party laboratories to ensure potency and purity.

cbdMD offers a variety of full-spectrum oil for pain & inflammation in 2022 products including 1,000mg, 2,500mg, 5,000mg, or 10,000mg per bottle. Plus they have a full line of pet products for your furry friends in need of pain relief.

But wait, there’s more! We didn’t want to leave you with just the 5 best CBD oils for pain & inflammation in 2022, rather we just had to give you a couple of BONUS options to choose from .

7. Bonus: FOCL

FOCL is a premium CBD brand based out of Los Angeles and Denver. Their ultra pure CBD Drops (AKA tinctures) are delicious, highly effective, and get rave reviews from loyal customers. They have an excellent reputation for high quality ingredients, amazing flavors, and fair pricing.

FOCL CBD Drops are made with organic ingredients, non-gmo, vegan, and THC-free, so you can relax, recover, and focus with peace of mind.

In terms of taste, they are hands down one of the best we’ve tried. They have a variety of flavors and strengths to choose from. In terms of value, we highly recommend their 2000mg CBD Drops .

All FOCL products are made in the USA, GMP Certified, and are extensively tested by third party labs (test results available on FOCL’s website), so you can rest assured knowing that there are no harmful toxins, heavy metals, or pesticides in any of their products.

The team at FOCL (short for Focus) is passionate about wellness and obsessed with producing products that actually work. In addition to their top rated CBD drops, they also have premium CBD gummies, relief cream and unique wellness formulas designed specifically for Focus, Sleep, Pain Relief and Immunity. For extra savings, try one of their 3-pack bundles .

CBD oil is a natural and non-intoxicating substance that can be extracted from the cannabis plant. CBD oils contain concentrated cannabidiol, which when administered orally or through an inhaler, helps alleviate pain and inflammation.

CBD is one of over 100 cannabinoids present in cannabis plants, but unlike THC (the cannabinoid responsible for getting people “high”), it does not produce any psychoactive effects. In fact, CBD has been shown to actually counteract some of the psychotic symptoms caused by THC exposure.

This makes it a useful therapeutic option for patients with severe forms of epilepsy who find relief from their seizures only when given CBD treatments alongside traditional anticonvulsant medications. It also helps relieve chronic pain without causing cognitive or psychoactive side effects.

CBD is also known to be useful in reducing muscle spasms and fighting certain autoimmune diseases. Its anti-inflammatory properties can help sufferers of arthritis reduce inflammation and ease their joint pain. Scientists believe it may also be effective at suppressing the growth of cancer cells.

In addition to being a health-boosting supplement, CBD has been found to have properties that can be used for cosmetic purposes as well. It moisturizes the skin and helps restore calmness in people who suffer from acne flare-ups. Since it helps treat psoriasis and eczema, CBD is also effective at combating dry skin and minimizing the appearance of fine lines.

CBD is a safe, non-addictive substance that can be used to alleviate aches and pains without causing any negative side effects. Patients have found it to be more effective at treating chronic pain than prescription painkillers, which are known to cause more severe withdrawal symptoms.

In addition to being an effective painkiller, it is also known to be a potent anti-inflammatory and can even reduce seizures caused by epilepsy. It works well on its own but has also shown positive results when it’s used in conjunction with traditional treatments for various different health conditions.

Not only can CBD oils help with pain & inflammation in 2022, but CBD products can help soothe skin disorders such as psoriasis, eczema, and acne flare-ups, as well as relieve symptoms of autoimmune diseases. CBD is also effective at minimizing the appearance of lines and wrinkles without causing any psychoactive side effects or cognitive impairment associated with THC.

What is CBD Oil?

CBD stands for Cannabidiol. It’s one of the many chemical compounds found within marijuana known as cannabinoids, which are also found in other agricultural hemp products like hemp seeds and hemp oil. Cannabis is actually a combination of three distinct plants – cannabis sativa, cannabis indica, and a third lesser known plant called cannabis ruderalis.

CBD Oil is not psychoactive because it does not contain tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the main compound responsible for the “high” that comes from smoking marijuana. However, CBD oil can be infused into different types of food, including candy, honey, gummies, and chocolate.

There are many benefits claimed for CBD oil. Some of these include helping with multiple sclerosis symptoms, treating chronic pain and inflammation, treating mental health conditions like stress and anxiety, fighting acne due to its anti-inflammatory properties, helping cancer patients with nausea and loss of appetite, improving heart health, and promoting better REM sleep.

Many people claim that CBD oil can be used as a natural pain reliever, antidepressant, stress reducer, and even as a potential cancer treatment. However, there aren’t many scientific research studies that back up these claims and the FDA has not approved the use of CBD oil for any medical condition. Currently, CBD oil is used as a food supplement that can be easily purchased online or from most health stores.

What’s the Difference Between CBD Oil and Hemp Seed Oil?

CBD oils made from hemp plants are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, other fatty acids that act as binding agents to help your body absorb more cannabinoids, other plant compounds such as terpenes, and vitamin E.

Hemp seed oil doesn’t contain CBD and is instead extracted from the seeds of hemp plants. This product has a higher ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids than its CBD oil counterpart.

Hemp seed oil also contains high levels of the antioxidant compound vitamin E, but little cannabidiol. Hemp seed oil is best suited to cooking or topical applications.

Is CBD Oil Legal?

CBD oils are legal in all states and territories, provided the products contain less than 0.3 percent THC. As the laws surrounding cannabis continue to change, experts recommend checking the federal laws on cannabis-derived compounds like CBD oil before making any purchases.

Hemp-based CBD oil is legal in most countries worldwide, but THC-free marijuana-derived CBD oil may not be legal in some territories. Customers who want to purchase hemp-derived CBD oils should check their country’s laws before placing an order or traveling across the U.S. border to a different state with stricter laws on such products.

What does CBD oil do?

CBD oil works by activating the body’s serotonin (anti-depressant effect), vanilloid (pain relief), and adenosine (anti-inflammatory effect) receptors, while also antagonizing the CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. Because of the way CBD oil interacts with the brain’s natural chemistry, it’s said to have more of an effect on relieving chronic pain rather than just masking the symptoms like some pain medications do.

Many experts suggest that you start with a small dosage of CBD oil and remain consistent in taking it every day before you notice any effects. It’s also not recommended to stop taking your blood pressure medication, antidepressants, or anti-inflammatory medications before beginning CBD oil treatment – that could lead to unwanted side effects.

Where can you find CBD Oil?

You’ll have no trouble finding CBD oil online or in most drug stores across the country. However, you should always purchase CBD oil products from reputable companies that can provide you with lab reports. This is important because they will show the levels of potential contaminants like pesticides, which are normally used on hemp crops.

To avoid these impurities, many of the high-quality CBD oil companies use a supercritical CO2 extraction process that does not produce any significant heat and avoids using harsh chemicals that could damage the CBD molecules.

Once you’ve selected a CBD oil product ensure that you read all ingredients carefully to ensure your safety – some products contain a mixture of hemp oil and other essential oils, which could cause a negative reaction to those who are allergic.

What can I expect from using CBD Oil?

Because CBD oil has only been recently introduced, there aren’t many studies regarding the long-term effects of taking it. However, some individuals have reported feeling lightheaded or having an upset stomach when they first begin using CBD oil.

Some users have also noticed that they become drowsy shortly after taking their dosage, but this is a common side effect of most prescription painkillers like morphine and oxycodone as well.

There are reports of some users suffering from chronic anxiety or depression when they first began taking CBD oil, but the effects diminished over time.

There haven’t been any notable side effects reported for CBD oil thus far, but there are several precautions to take into consideration before using it:

Avoid taking CBD oil within a couple of hours of your bedtime – it may disrupt your sleep cycle.

People who have a family or personal history of psychosis should be especially careful about using CBD oil.

Make sure that you test any CBD oil product before ingesting it – some have been known to contain high levels of THC despite labeling itself as “pure CBD.”

Always purchase your CBD products from reputable stores or online merchants.

To be on the safe side, you might want to speak with your doctor before taking CBD oil.

How do you take CBD sublingually?

This is the ultimate guide to CBD oil for pain & inflammation in 2022, but you may have one more question.

How do I take it?

If you are wondering how to use CBD oil for pain management, here’s a quick reference guide.

Simply place your preferred amount of drops under your tongue and hold the liquid there for 60-90 seconds. Then, swallow what’s left in your mouth and enjoy the rest.

You should expect to feel results in about 10 minutes, but like we always say. everyone is different. So it may take a bit longer for you.

Do not eat or drink anything 15 minutes before taking CBD, or do so at your own risk.

CBD is not psychoactive, so you won’t get high even if you take too much at once. But why take the chance? Start with a small amount and increase slowly over time to see how your body reacts.

What are the effects of CBD oil under the tongue?

CBD oil is a versatile product that can be taken in many different ways.

But when you take supplements under your tongue, it takes directly into the bloodstream through tiny capillaries called arterioles. From there, the cannabinoids are transported immediately to the CB1 and CB2 receptors located in every organ of your body.

Constantly recycling, these receptors are responsible for the effects of CBD. They affect pleasure, pain, relaxation, and many other functions that keep your body running smoothly.

CBD has been shown to help with.

Relieving pain and inflammation

CBD oil is a natural anti-inflammatory. It’s known for reducing the intensity of chronic pain as well as several inflammatory diseases, including arthritis.

Easing an anxious mind

If you suffer from anxiety, it can be hard to relax, focus, and sleep. Taking CBD oil for anxiety can help you feel calmer and more relaxed throughout the day.

Promoting healthy cell growth

CBD also has antioxidant properties that slow down the aging process, prevent disease and protect your cells from damage. It even helps with acne by inhibiting bacteria responsible for breakouts.

Fighting nausea and vomiting

If you experience chronic nausea or find yourself throwing up often, CBD oil can help. It’s known to ease stomach pain and regulate your digestive tract.

CBD oil is also becoming more popular for treating conditions like migraines, epilepsy, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, and even cancer due to its anti-inflammatory properties.

Complete Guide For The Best CBD Oils for Pain & Inflammation in 2022

Now that you know the top 5 brands plus two bonus companies to get your CBD oil from, we wanted to share more about how these work to help you with pain and inflammation.

As always, we want you to consult with your doctor about whether these are safe for you to take. As with most medications or supplements, combining CBD oil with prescription medications or other supplements may not have the desired effect. Your doctor will know best if CBD oil is the right option for you.

What Factors Can Cause Pain and Inflammation?

Before we dive too far into the topic of taking any of these recommended CBD oils for pain & inflammation in 2022, we wanted to share more about what factors can cause pain and inflammation to the human body:

Physical Injury

When you suffer a physical injury, it can cause your body to experience pain and inflammation. The injured tissues become stressed during this time because they are trying to heal themselves.

Chemical Stimulation ​

We also have chemical messages in our bodies that can cause us to feel pain or experience inflammation. These molecules are called neurotransmitters, and they manipulate the communication between our cells to produce pain. If these neurotransmitter levels get too high or too low, this can also cause pain and inflammation in your body.

In today’s busy world, it is not surprising to hear that a lot of people suffer from stress on a daily basis. This can cause chemical stimulation, which can lead to inflammation and pain.

Autoimmune Disorders

Unfortunately, some people may suffer from an autoimmune disorder that causes their body to attack itself. When this occurs, it is possible for the person to experience pain and inflammation as their immune system tries to fight off these attacks.

What’s The Best CBD For Pain & Inflammation?

In short, the best CBD oil for pain and inflammation is a product that works to help your body naturally manage these symptoms. They do this by influencing your body’s hormones, neurotransmitters, and immune system functions.

The key here is finding a brand of CBD oil that actually works for you. Take some time to read reviews and inquire with your doctor before you decide on a CBD oil for pain and inflammation.

If you are considering taking CBD oil for any of these conditions or symptoms, we recommend starting slowly at first so that your body can adjust to the effects. Then, gradually increase your dosage as needed until you find what works best for you.

How CBD can potentially help with pain and inflammation

The cells in our body react to pain or injury by releasing chemicals called cytokines. These cytokines signal the immune system to release proteins that cause inflammation, swelling, and other symptoms related to pain.

By taking CBD oil for pain and inflammation, you can help your natural immune response by stopping these signals before they are sent.

CBD oil can also help reduce your body’s production of cytokines, which will help prevent inflammation and swelling. This reduction in cytokine production is another way to manage pain and inflammation that naturally occur in the human body.

By using CBD for pain management you are also reducing the number of chemicals that can cause inflammation in your body. By improving your immune system’s response to inflammation, CBD oil for pain management has the potential to treat many types of chronic pains.

How to Take CBC Oil for Pain

There are numerous ways that you can consume CBD oil. Here is a list of the most popular:

Capsules & Edibles

This is one of the most popular and easiest ways to take CBD oil. Capsules come in a variety of sizes and strengths, depending on how much CBD you need. Many people also enjoy edibles for their convenience and simplicity.

CBD Tincture

A tincture is one of the quickest and easiest ways to incorporate CBD into your daily routine. These products typically come in small glass bottles with a dropper for easy dosing.

Sublingual

A sublingual tincture can be placed under your tongue for fast absorption. This method allows the CBD to travel directly into your bloodstream, making it effective immediately.

Topical Application

Finally, CBD oil can be applied topically for localized relief. Using a topical ointment or cream has many benefits that go beyond pain management. These areas are often where you experience some of your body’s biggest pains, so apply the oil directly here to reduce inflammation and swelling on the spot.

When Should You Take CBD?

If you are taking CBD oil for pain and inflammation, it is best to take your dosage at regular intervals throughout the day. Many people enjoy using their tincture or vape additive first thing in the morning as a way to start their day off on an elevated note.

Others prefer to use these methods before bed as a way to manage any aches or pains they experienced throughout the day.

What is the Best Dosage for CBD Oil?

The most popular way to take CBD oil is through capsules that are ingested orally. This is the most common dosage for CBD oil, and also the easiest to use if you are not familiar with tinctures.

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For acute pain relief, it is best to start at 5-10mg of CBD per day. If this amount does not produce any noticeable changes in your symptoms, then try increasing to 15-25mg.

Lastly, topical ointments and creams should generally be used according to the directions and needs of the user. Topical CBD oil should never be used in place of traditional pain prescriptions.

CBD Oil for Pain: Side Effects & Precautions

While CBD oil is considered very safe, there are a few considerations to keep in mind when taking this or any other supplement. Always buy from a trusted source, and make sure that you are using pure CBD oil with 0% THC.

The use of cannabis is not recommended during pregnancy or while breastfeeding unless absolutely necessary. Furthermore, children should never take CBD oil without the guidance of their doctor.

As always, talk to your doctor before taking any new supplements, especially if you have an existing medical condition.

As CBD is a relatively new supplement, there have not been any long-term studies done on the effects of taking this oil over the course of several years. While it is considered very safe, as with all things you put into your body it’s best to be cautious and informed.

In 2022, the world will know much more about the benefits and uses of CBD oil. As our understanding of this supplement grows, more manufacturers will start making pure CBD products available on a global scale.

While cannabis may still have some legal or social hurdles to overcome in many countries, the use of CBD oil for pain is an exciting and fast-growing market worldwide.

How to Select The Best CBD Oil For Your Pain & Inflammation in 2022

When looking for a CBD oil to help with pain and inflammation, it’s important to select a product that is high quality and has been tested for purity. It’s also important to make sure that the CBD oil has been extracted using a method that allows for fast absorption, such as using carrier oils or vape additives.

It’s best to start with a low dosage of CBD oil and increase gradually if needed until you find the dosage that works best for you. CBD oil can be taken orally, smoked, or applied topically.

There are many ways to take CBD oil, but be sure to follow the directions on your product for optimal results.

As CBD becomes more popular worldwide, manufacturers will develop new products that increase the bioavailability of their capsules or tinctures. This means that you’ll need less CBD oil in each serving size for it to have an impact on your pain and inflammation.

In 2022, CBD oil will most likely remain a popular choice for easing aches and pains due to its fast-acting, long lasting effects. The demand for CBD oil products will likely increase as more states legalize cannabis and consumers look for a safer alternative to opioid painkillers.

Does Taking CBD Get You High?

No! CBD oil products will not get you high, as they contain almost no THC, which is the chemical responsible for the “high” produced by traditional marijuana use.

Even though it is possible to become psychologically addicted to cannabis use, addiction-related to CBD oil use is extremely rare and unlikely.

What is the Difference Between Hemp-Derived vs Marijuana-Derived CBD Oil?

CBD oils made from marijuana plants are also low in THC. But unlike hemp-derived CBD oil, marijuana-derived CBD products may contain more psychoactive compounds like THC, which could induce feelings of sleepiness and euphoria.

Marijuana-derived CBD oil is best for customers who prefer a product with a high THC content or want to experience a “high.”

What Are The Benefits Of CBD Oil?

CBD oil works similarly to other pain medications, but without the unwanted side effects. Though not widely understood by the public, CBD has been found to have many medical benefits, including reducing inflammation and acting as an anti-inflammatory agent itself.

Topical CBD oils are also available for those who want localized relief from arthritis or other inflammatory conditions.

The most common benefits of CBD oil include:

Anti-inflammatory properties that reduce pain and swelling

Fast acting, providing quick relief from chronic or acute disorders

Can be used in conjunction with other therapies to increase the effectiveness of treatment for certain conditions

CBD Oil Legal Status Worldwide

CBD oil is legal throughout much of the world, but it is still considered a controlled substance in many countries.

In some areas of the United States, CBD oil can be purchased at local health food stores. If you live in a state where CBD is not legal, however, you may have to travel outside your city or state to purchase it.

CBD oil can also be purchased online and shipped to customers in most areas of the United States, Canada, and Australia. If you live outside these countries, ask your local health food store about CBD products or find a shop online that can legally ship CBD oils for pain & inflammation in 2022 to your region of the world.

Is Hemp Oil and CBD oil the same?

Hemp oil and CBD oil are not the same, and hemp oil does not contain significant amounts of CBD.

While hemp oil is rich in omega-3 fatty acids and has many health benefits, it’s best known for its ability to improve skin health by hydrating dry, flaky areas such as the elbows and knees – rather than for treating issues such as inflammation and arthritis.

CBD oil is much more potent than hemp oil and does contain high levels of CBD, though it’s worth noting that the other components in cannabis plants, such as THC and terpenes, can also affect your health when combined with CBD.

Different Types of CBD Oil Extracts Are Available

As CBD oil becomes more popular, manufacturers will create new product types with advanced delivery methods to increase bioavailability and reduce negative side effects.

Full Spectrum

As you explore different CBD oil products, you may notice that many are labeled as full spectrum CBD. This means that the extract contains all of the compounds in the hemp plant, including trace amounts of terpenes and cannabinoids such as THC.

Although not to be confused with CBD isolate, full-spectrum CBD does contain small levels of THC to produce the entourage effect.

Because of this, you may experience mild side effects such as feeling tired or groggy after using full-spectrum CBD oil.

Broad Spectrum

Unlike full spectrum oils, pure CBD oil contains only CBD and is free from THC and other trace compounds found in cannabis plants. Since no extra ingredients are added during production, these CBD oils are ideal for customers who prefer the taste of pure oil. There’s also no risk of feeling tired or groggy.

CBD Isolate

CBD oil products labeled as CBD isolate contain 99 percent CBD and less than 0.3 percent THC, making it ideal for those who prefer a pure extract without any additional active compounds.

Efficacy of CBD Oils

CBD oils work best when they contain both omega-3 fatty acids and other fatty acids that act as binding agents to help your body absorb more cannabinoids.

These fatty acids include monounsaturated oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, and stearidonic acid.

The presence of these binding agents makes CBD oil easier for your body to absorb – which means you’ll need smaller doses to experience the same effects as larger amounts of oils with alternative delivery methods.

CBD oils may also contain added terpenes and a wide range of plant extracts designed to enhance bioavailability and produce additional benefits. While many hemp-derived products have high levels of cannabidiol, you should be aware that these ingredients can also contain trace amounts of THC.

Because some CBD products are produced from cannabis plants, the resulting oils may contain small amounts of THC – even if they don’t contain psychoactive ingredients that would produce a “high.” This is fine for most customers who do not have THC allergies or preferences.

Make Use of The Right Dosage Amount

Different CBD oils have different purposes and effects, so it’s best to buy a small amount of CBD oil to determine whether you feel any positive results. It’s also important not to exceed the recommended dosage as too much CBD can be counter-productive.

The dosages for each product vary by manufacturer and range from as little as 20mg per day to up to 1,000mg per day. Refer to the product’s label for specific dosage instructions and information. You can also read reviews from fellow users of CBD oil products, which will provide you with a wider range of experiences and opinions on each product.

What is the Difference Between Hemp-Derived vs Marijuana-Derived CBD Oil?

CBD oils made from marijuana plants are also low in THC. But unlike hemp-derived CBD oil, marijuana-derived CBD products may contain more psychoactive compounds like THC, which could induce feelings of sleepiness and euphoria.

Marijuana-derived CBD oil is best for customers who prefer a product with a high THC content or want to experience a “high.”

What’s the Difference Between CBD Oil and Hemp Seed Oil?

CBD oils made from hemp plants are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, other fatty acids that act as binding agents to help your body absorb more cannabinoids, other plant compounds such as terpenes, and vitamin E.

Hemp seed oil doesn’t contain CBD and is instead extracted from the seeds of hemp plants. This product has a higher ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids than its CBD oil counterpart.

Hemp seed oil also contains high levels of the antioxidant compound vitamin E, but little cannabidiol. Hemp seed oil is best suited to cooking or topical applications.

Is CBD Oil Legal?

CBD oils are legal in all states and territories, provided the products contain less than 0.3 percent THC. As the laws surrounding cannabis continue to change, experts recommend checking the federal laws on cannabis-derived compounds like CBD oil before making any purchases.

Hemp-based CBD oil is legal in most countries worldwide, but THC-free marijuana-derived CBD oil may not be legal in some territories. Customers who want to purchase hemp-derived CBD oils should check their country’s laws before placing an order or traveling across the U.S. border to a different state with stricter laws on such products.

What Ingredients Should I Watch Out For in CBD Oils?

The FDA does not regulate CBD oil products. But like other dietary supplements, it recommends consulting with a physician before using any hemp-derived CBD oils to treat medical conditions or to determine dosage amounts.

We also recommend checking the ingredient lists for each product you plan on purchasing at your local store and searching for information about how the product might interfere with other medications you’re taking or how it might interact with existing medical conditions.

In all honesty, if you’re searching for CBD oils for pain & inflammation in 2022 then you’ll want to make sure that there is no more than .3% THC in any of the CBD oils you’re buying. This will ensure you’re less likely to get a “high” from the oils, instead you’ll gain the most out of the medical or therapeutical properties of the CBD oils.

How Can I Find the Best CBD Oil?

CBD oil is gaining more and more recognition every day as a potential treatment for many different ailments. In order to determine which product would be best for you, consider your needs and lifestyle before making any purchase.

CBD oil products are available for purchase online through websites, but customers should have a firm understanding of what to look for before making any purchases.

Research and reviews of CBD oil products are also available through online resources such as the Hemp Business Journal, Leafly, and Project CBD.

How Can I Get Started With CBD Oil?

If you’re considering buying a CBD oil product, the first thing you should do is speak with your doctor to ensure it’s safe for you to use and understand all of the potential benefits of CBD oil.

After speaking with your doctor, you should visit each of the CBD brands’ websites to research more about hemp-derived CBD oils and products available for purchase. Since regulations vary from state to state, make sure to check state laws before making any purchases online.

How do you use CBD oil topically for pain?

CBD oil can be used topically for pain relief in a variety of ways. You can rub CBD oil directly onto the skin where you’re experiencing pain, or you can add it to your favorite lotion or cream to help with absorption.

Another option for using CBD oil topically is to use the CBD oil as a moisturizer or apply it directly to an injury if you’re suffering from joint or muscle pain.

Another reason that people enjoy applying CBD oil topically is because of its soothing effects on the skin and how it can help reduce inflammation. It’s even able to penetrate deep layers of stubborn skin tissue, which can help your muscles and joints better absorb the natural oils.

Each type of CBD oil has its own benefits and offers different possibilities for pain relief. The use, application method, supply, and dosage are all factors that have a bearing on how CBD can help with the pain.

While there are fewer documented cases of side effects from using CBD oil topically, it’s still possible that you could have an allergic reaction or suffer from an unknown irritation while applying CBD oil to affected areas.

Does CBD oil relax muscles?

Many people who use CBD oil and other hemp products believe that the product has a calming effect on the muscles and nerves. While research into how CBD affects connective tissue cells is ongoing, we do know that it interacts at least partially with receptors in the immune system as well as receptors throughout the endocrine and nervous system.

Mast cells make gluten-associated antibodies in response to certain foods like dairy and peanut, which is why some people are highly sensitive to trace amounts of certain foods.

CBD may have a similar effect on mast cells, which can regulate pain and inflammation by stimulating histamine release. By activating or blocking the receptors of neurotransmitters, CBD oil might be able to help reduce inflammation and relax muscles.

How long does it take for CBD oil topicals to work?

The length of time that it takes for CBD oil topicals to start working depends on the application. Creams and lotions will take longer because they need to fully absorb into your skin before you’ll begin to feel their effects, but sublingual tinctures are absorbed into the blood stream almost immediately.

Can I use other pain medications with CBD?

Currently, there aren’t many studies looking at the interaction between CBD and other pain medications. While many people believe that CBD can help relieve some of the pain, it’s important to remember that using any type of new medication without first consulting with your doctor could have serious consequences.

Most doctors will tell you not to mix CBD with other prescription painkillers without first discussing the potential risks. If you’re using both types of medication, ask your doctor if there are any interactions that may be dangerous for your health.

How much CBD should I take?

While it’s possible to take too much CBD oil, the safe upper limit of the product seems to be around 1mg per kilogram of your body weight. While that amount is considered safe for most people, it may still cause problems in smaller or younger individuals.

When taking any type of CBD oil, it’s important to take only the recommended dosage and use the product as directed on the package label. Because everyone’s biochemistry is slightly different, it’s possible that your body may not respond to CBD oil in the same manner as someone else.

If you’re taking any medication other than CBD oil, talk to your doctor about how much CBD you should take and how often you should use it. It’s also important to remember that using other medications with CBD oil may have unexpected consequences.

The same is true of CBD oil and other hemp products such as edibles and extracts, which can alter the effects of either substance on your body when taken together.

CBD seems to be a fairly safe product with few interactions when used properly, but it’s always best to talk to your doctor before beginning to use any new medication or natural remedy.

Recap of the Best CBD Oils for Pain & Inflammation in 2022

Penguin CBD – an extremely popular product that offers excellent value for money.

Verma Farms – another great option that offers full-spectrum CBD oil at a low cost to consumers.

R+R Medicinals – a full-spectrum CBD oil that’s available in the United States and ships to most countries worldwide.

Colorado Botanicals- a popular CBD oil that comes as regular strength and high-potency options.

cbdMD – another popular option that’s available for purchase online but doesn’t ship to Australia.

Bonus: BATCH CBD – a high-quality CBD oil that’s available in nine different strengths.

Bonus: TheraOne – a high-quality CBD oil that’s available in nine different strengths and ships to most countries worldwide.

Final Thoughts

Finally, we hope that you learned a lot of valuable information about how to use CBD oil for pain and inflammation without accidentally getting high from it. We wanted to share more about what factors could potentially cause pain and inflammation to the human body, as well as how CBD oil can be used to help treat these symptoms naturally.

We encourage you to read our other articles to learn more about CBD oil, what it does, how it works, and which brands are the best on the market today. If you have any questions or thoughts for us here, please do feel free to our contact form to reach us.