Cbd oil for dog help with rod ear infections

CBD for Pets: Does It Actually Work?

Many pet owners are looking for holistic, alternative treatments outside of traditional medicine for their four-legged family members. As with all pharmaceuticals, the medication prescribed to your pet could be accompanied by side effects, may not work effectively, or may even cancel out the function of another medication your pet is taking. Is CBD the solution for those with pets suffering from conditions like epilepsy, arthritis, chronic pain, or anxiety?


Introduction to Pet CBD

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a chemical compound in a group known as cannabinoids, which are derived from cannabis and hemp plants. Although some pet parents refrain from using CBD products on the premise that they may get their pets high, this fear is unwarranted. While CBD is technically a psychoactive compound, its effects are not intoxicating like those of the cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). To learn more, check out our complete guide to CBD.

Let’s explore whether CBD has the potential to improve the quality of our pets’ lives. In this article, we’ll break down your pet’s endocannabinoid system, existing research on CBD and animals, what vets think about CBD, CBD dosing standards for dogs and cats, and how to find good CBD oil for your pet.

Pets and the Endocannabinoid System

The same endocannabinoid system (ECS) that is present in the human body is present in all vertebrates, or all animals possessing backbones, as well as most invertebrates. Having an endocannabinoid system is the reason we are able to experience the benefits of cannabinoids. The cannabinoids bind to the receptors of the ECS that are located throughout our bodies, namely the type 1 and 2 cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2).

Most popular pets—including cats, dogs, rabbits, birds, and reptiles—have backbones, meaning they have an ECS. In other words, the medical benefits of cannabis for humans can also be delivered to most animals. Unfortunately, pets that aren’t vertebrates may not have an ECS, meaning that cannabis wouldn’t work for them. In this guide, we will mainly discuss the use of CBD for cats and dogs.

The ECS is responsible for maintaining a healthy and natural balance in the body. Your pet’s ECS communicates with the cannabinoid receptors using the endocannabinoids produced in the body. When CBD is consumed, the endocannabinoids produced by the body are stimulated, leading to an interaction between (1) the ECS, (2) the ECS endocannabinoids found in the body, and (3) the cannabis cannabinoids. But what does the research have to say about the possible benefits of CBD for pets?

Health Benefits of CBD for Pets

Plenty of anecdotal evidence exists from pet owners who have found success giving CBD to their pets. A 2018 survey led by veterinary researchers found that 87% of respondents would recommend CBD for their friends’ dogs. However, we have to turn to the research to investigate the true health benefits of CBD for animals. Fortunately, scientists have already spearheaded some studies to assess the interaction of CBD with animals’ bodies, showing significant promise for the cannabinoid in veterinary healthcare.

What the Research Has to Say

A 2018 study aimed to understand the effectiveness of CBD as a treatment for osteoarthritis, a condition often treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). After giving the canine subjects either CBD oil or placebo oil for four weeks, results showed significantly reduced pain and no side effects in the dogs that received CBD. In contrast, NSAIDs are associated with numerous negative effects. Despite the small sample size (16 dogs), the study concluded that CBD is an effective treatment to mitigate pain and increase mobility in dogs with osteoarthritis.

A 2013 study that assessed the role of CBD in alleviating pancreatitis had promising results as well. After inducing acute pancreatitis in a group of mice using cerulein, researchers injected the mice with CBD and evaluated their enzyme levels. Results showed that the CBD significantly improved pathological changes and decreased enzyme activities as well as the tumor necrosis factor, a protein that causes inflammation. The study ultimately backed CBD’s efficacy as an anti-inflammatory product, though further research is needed to generalize these findings to other animals.

Researchers have also delved into the potential of using CBD to treat dogs with idiopathic epilepsy, the most common canine neurologic condition. A clinical trial conducted at Colorado State University (CSU) from 2016 to 2017—the first of its kind—explored the effects of CBD on seizure frequency in dogs. Among a group of 16 epileptic dogs, nine were given CBD oil and seven were given a placebo oil twice daily for 12 weeks. The researchers found that 89% of the dogs given CBD had a significant reduction in seizure frequency—an encouraging statistic despite the small sample size.

General Benefits of CBD

More scientific studies are needed to pinpoint the specific and guaranteed benefits provided by CBD for animals, but experts have enough literature and accounts to speculate on the cannabinoid’s general medical uses. Dr. Trina Hazzah, DVM, wrote for Great Pet Care that CBD products can potentially offer animals the following benefits:

  • Anti-inflammatory (i.e. hypersensitivity, dermatitis)
  • Reduction in pain
  • Reduction in seizures and convulsions
  • Immune system support (i.e. autoimmune disease, cancer)
  • Nervous system support
  • Cardiovascular system support
  • Reduction in anxiety
  • Gastrointestinal support


CBD Products
May Not Always Work

The CBD brands catering to pets may suggest that their products help animals with all kinds of problems, such as hypertension and behavior issues. While many pet owners find success in the therapeutic properties of CBD, some notice absolutely no difference in their fur baby’s symptoms.

As previously mentioned, CBD will not work for organisms that do not have an ECS. Since this doesn’t apply to cats and dogs, the issue may be the products being used. Unfortunately, some CBD products marketed for pets have been found to contain little to no CBD, making them ineffective. Cornell University veterinary researcher Joseph Wakshlag told High Times, “You’d be astounded by the analysis we’ve seen of products on the shelf with virtually no CBD in them, or products with 2 milligrams per milliliter, when an effective concentration would be between 25 and 75 milligrams per milliliter.”

Products might also be ineffective because they contain isolated cannabinoids as opposed to being full- or broad-spectrum, the recommended form for accessing the complete benefits of CBD. Full- or broad-spectrum CBD contains multiple cannabinoids, with CBD quantity being the highest. When combined, cannabinoids work more efficiently than they would on their own, creating what is known as the entourage effect. While full-spectrum products may contain 0.3% or less THC, it’s important to note that this amount is not enough to cause adverse effects in your pet.

What Do Vets Think About CBD?

Veterinarians do and don’t recommend CBD as pet medication—it ultimately depends on the vet’s background and experience. Vets who don’t support CBD products may be unaware of the benefits or hesitant to recommend a product that was previously illegal. Others may be uncomfortable venturing outside of the conventional pharmaceutical medicine they learned about in school. Still, an increasing number of vets who have witnessed the medical benefits of CBD are recommending it to pet owners.

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Veterinarian Paul Rowan at the Center of Animal Healing told Green Entrepreneur, “We were sold on CBD products after a long-time client of ours whose doggie is always full of strange wart-like spots that we have never truly been able to get rid of began using CBD salve.” After just a few weeks of continued use, the spots vanished. Dr. Rowan also claims CBD helps reduce seizure activity and tumor growth and now implements the cannabinoid into all his clients’ treatment plans.

Dr. Lauren Beaird, DVM, was skeptical about dabbling in medication outside of standard western medical practice at the beginning of her career, but she slowly educated herself on CBD in response to inquiries from pet owners. While Dr. Beaird refrains from referring to hemp as a cure-all, she now includes CBD in all treatment plans for pets with chronic illness or inflammatory disorders. “I have several pets that benefit from full-spectrum hemp oil that are suffering from arthritis, cognitive decline, anxiety, and even cancer,” the vet stated.

According to the American Veterinary Medical Association, vets are forbidden under federal and state law from administering, dispensing, prescribing, or recommending cannabis products for animals. However, pet owners are free to discuss with their veterinarian the potential risks and benefits of creating their own treatment plan with CBD oil, which is legal to buy and use in all 50 states. Laws like California’s AB-2215, which protects the state’s vets from disciplinary action for discussing cannabis treatments, are paving the way for CBD’s permanent spot in veterinary medicine.

Pet Size and Dosing Standards

CBD pet products come in three main forms: tinctures, capsules, and edible treats. Tinctures come in a dropper bottle and allow for the most accurate and customized dosing, while capsules and treats are pre-measured and less messy. CBD generally takes effect about 45 minutes after consumption and can last up to eight hours, so most pets should receive one to two doses a day. Keep in mind that it might take a couple of weeks of consistent use to see the full benefits of CBD in your pet.

The amount of CBD your pet needs could vary depending on their condition, so start with a low dose and work up to a stronger dose in small increments. The general recommendation for administering CBD to an animal is 1-5 milligrams for every 10 pounds of body weight. Whatever form of CBD you decide to give your pet, refer to the chart below from All The Best Pet Care to ensure you’re giving them the right amount of CBD for their body weight.

Pet Weight Low Dose Medium Dose Strong Dose
10 pounds 1 mg 3 mg 5 mg
20 pounds 2 mg 6 mg 10 mg
30 pounds 3 mg 9 mg 15 mg
40 pounds 4 mg 12 mg 20 mg
50 pounds 5 mg 15 mg 25 mg
60 pounds 6 mg 18 mg 30 mg
70 pounds 7 mg 21 mg 35 mg
80 pounds 8 mg 24 mg 40 mg
90 pounds 9 mg 27 mg 45 mg
100 pounds 10 mg 30 mg 50 mg


CBD for Dogs

Looking for alternative medicine for your canine pal? You’re in luck. More CBD research has been conducted on dogs than any other animal, so there’s mounting evidence that CBD can relieve the symptoms of some of the most common conditions seen in dogs, including:

  • Cataracts
  • Arthritis
  • Ear infections
  • Kennel cough
  • Diarrhea
  • Fleas and ticks
  • Heartworm
  • Broken bones
  • Obesity
  • Cancer


How to Give
CBD Oil to Dogs

Many dogs love food and treats, but they might not be so keen on taking their medicine. Here are a few tricks for administering CBD oil to your pup:

  1. Apply it directly to the inside of your dog’s mouth (near the back) using a dropper.
  2. Put the oil onto a porous dog treat, such as a biscuit, that will absorb the oil.
  3. Mix the oil into something delicious such as peanut butter.
  4. Mix the oil into their regular food; they’re unlikely to notice a difference.
  5. Use the oil in a recipe for homemade dog treats.


Can CBD Kill
My Dog?

The short answer is no—CBD is not inherently toxic for dogs. A 2020 study in which 20 adult dogs were administered CBD oil, THC oil, or placebo oil found that the CBD oil was as safe as the placebo. Even dogs that were given higher doses of CBD did not experience serious adverse effects like those seen in the dogs that received substantial doses of THC, such as lethargy, hypothermia, and ataxia (lack of muscle control). If you stick with quality CBD products, your furry friend will be just fine.

CBD for Cats

Although less CBD research has been done on cats than dogs, small studies have demonstrated the cannabinoid’s potential to soothe medical conditions in felines. Some of the most common conditions seen in cats that could possibly be alleviated by CBD treatment include:

  • Cancer
  • Diabetes
  • Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)
  • Feline leukemia virus (FeLV)
  • Heartworm
  • High-rise syndrome
  • Rabies
  • Ringworm
  • Upper respiratory infections
  • Worms


How to Give
CBD Oil to Cats

Cats are notoriously picky eaters, so giving them any kind of medicine can sometimes be a challenge. Here are some tried-and-tested ways to administer CBD oil to your kitty:

  1. Put the oil in your cat’s mouth using a dropper; make sure to let them smell it first.
  2. Pour a mix of fish oil and CBD oil onto their dry food.
  3. Put the oil onto a porous cat treat, such as a biscuit, that will absorb the oil.
  4. Mix the CBD oil into wet food or tuna.
  5. Put the oil on their paws for them to lick off. This method should work for the fussiest of cats, but it tends to be messy and a little wasteful.


Can CBD Kill My Cat?

CBD is not toxic for cats, so even an overdose of the cannabinoid will have little effect on your kitty. A 2019 study found CBD to be safe but slightly less effective for cats than dogs—however, more research is needed to support this. After eight dogs and eight cats were given CBD oil for 12 weeks, results showed that the cats absorbed the CBD less efficiently than the dogs but had no serious adverse effects. To avoid complications, start your cat out with low doses of CBD and stick to high-quality products.

How to Find Good CBD for Pets

As with anything, faulty CBD products exist. Fortunately, there are certain indicators pet parents can look for to ensure the CBD products they’re buying are effective. One of the easiest precautions owners can take is closely inspecting product labels before purchasing. As mentioned previously, products should ideally be full- or broad-spectrum (containing small amounts of other cannabinoids) to increase the effectiveness of the product. Ideally, CBD pet products should be:

  • Laboratory-tested
  • Organic
  • Derived from hemp or cannabis (not synthetic)
  • Non-GMO
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Certificates of Analysis

Upon request, reputable companies can provide a product’s Certificate of Analysis (COA), an in-depth laboratory report that identifies the product’s exact cannabinoid quantities. For example, HolistaPet has a page on its website that presents the most up-to-date COAs for each of its products. These analyses should always be conducted by a third-party laboratory to ensure objectivity. On top of confirming that the product is indeed lab-certified, the COA will verify that the product is free of harmful amounts of THC and holds the CBD it promises.

Seals of Approval

Another sign to look for on quality CBD pet products is a seal of approval from a credible organization. One of the most widely recognized seals of approval comes from the National Animal Supplement Council (NASC), a nonprofit that regulates products sold for animals. You can also check for a company’s approval by the U.S. Hemp Authority® Certification Program, which involves a rigorous process to ensure the company is adhering to industry standards and best practices.

If your pet’s prescribed pills and powders aren’t doing the trick, CBD might be the holistic remedy you’ve been looking for. With the reported low risk and high potential backed by science, experimenting with CBD shouldn’t hurt your pet and could very well improve their overall quality of life. This guide should be enough to get you started with pet CBD products, but always talk to your veterinarian about specific concerns.

Note: The content on this page is for informational purposes only and is not intended to be professional medical advice. Do not attempt to diagnose or prescribe treatment based on the information provided. Always consult a veterinarian before making any decision on medical treatment for your pets.

This guide is a compilation of blog posts written by Ashley Priest, Kat Helgeson, and Anthony Dutcher.

CBD Oil For Ear Infections in Dogs

CBD for ear infections may be beneficial to dogs. With ear infections being one of the most common reasons we take our dogs to the vet for, it’s important to understand how to prevent them, and how to treat them. That said, dog breeds with floppy ears are more prone to ear infections.

Untreated ear infections in dogs can result in deafness, eye issues, facial paralysis, and severe pain.

A CBD oil expert can follow up with the veterinary diagnosis from your veterinarian and recommend a reputable THC-free CBD hemp oil supplement for your dog.

Before choosing a CBD hemp oil supplement for your dog’s ear infection, consult with your veterinarian for a diagnosis.

You can then discuss which CBD hemp oil supplement would be best for your dog, with the appropriate dosage for his or her health condition.

CBD potency requirements will vary according to the specific health issue.

Yeast ear infections are more common than bacterial ear infections in dogs. Usually, you won’t notice the beginning of an ear infection, and it’s only when your dog is shaking his head and pawing his ear, that you’ll know that something is wrong.

Common Causes of Ear Infections in Dogs

  • Bacterial
  • Yeast
  • Ear mites
  • Allergies
  • Hormonal changes
  • Immune system issue

Otitis Externa

This is a common problem affecting the ear canal in dogs. It takes place when the layer of cells that line the external ear canal becomes inflamed. Identifying the causes will help to control the ear infection, and

  • Skin redness
  • Itchiness
  • Swelling
  • Increased discharge
  • Scaling of the skin area
  • Walking in circles
  • Possible hearing loss
  • Aggression due to pain
  • Tilting head to one side or head shaking or pawing of the ear.

Common Causes of Otitis Exter

  • Parasites
  • Allergies
  • Foreign objects
  • Yeast and bacteria both will progress the condition
  • The shape of the ear may also predispose dog breeds to ear infections
  • Hypothyroidism

Your veterinarian will do a complete examination using an otoscope. Your dog may need to be sedated to allow for this, most especially if his ear is painful, or if there is the discharge or widespread inflammatory tissue. Most dogs with ear infections will be uncooperative with ear examinations.

A tissue sample may also be needed to check for infection-causing microbes. Initially, a smear may diagnose a problem right away like for small microorganisms living in the ear which may cause diseases.

Your veterinarian will check for the following during an ear exam:

  • Low- grade infection
  • Foreign objects in the ear
  • Impacted debris
  • Ruptured or abnormal eardrums
  • Dark discharges usually mean yeast or a parasite infection, but a dark discharge may also be present with a bacterial infection.
  • Aspergillus fungus
  • Trauma
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Foul odor coming from the infected ear
  • Bulging eardrum that’s painful
  • Sometimes there is nervous system damage with facial nerve damage
  • Yellow or brown discharge

When there is ear discharge, your veterinarian will check for larvae, eggs, or adult ear mites that may be present. Allergy testing may also be necessary, and sometimes even biopsies, if the ear infections are long-term, or if there is inflammation of the external ear canal. X-rays are used for eardrums, or to check the middle ear when there are problems with balance.

Treatment for Severe Bacterial Ear Infections

This can only begin after your veterinarian has made a diagnosis. Sometimes the hair inside the ear canal is removed, so that air can move through easily. This also helps with cleaning, drying the ear canal, and applying medication. A good ear cleaning done under general anesthesia may also be needed.

Treatment will usually last for 2-4 weeks or until the infection has cleared. Cleaning your dog’s ears regularly, and making sure that you use drying agents in dogs that swim a lot helps to prevent ear infections.

Your veterinarian may prescribe the following for an ear infection

  • Corticosteroids
  • Antibacterial drugs
  • Ear mites would need a topical product that is both antibacterial and antiparasitic.

How to Spot a Yeast Ear Infection

With ear infections, there’s usually a yeasty smell coming from the infected ear that is easy to pick up. You can also use a soft tissue, and gently move your finger into the ear canal. If the tissue comes out brown, you’ll know that there’s a yeast infection present or too much Malassezia present in the ear.

Malassezia is a yeast that grows in a dog’s ears and skin and may be hard to get rid of. It takes a while to grow but is tenacious when it’s present, most especially in wet skin and hair. Your veterinarian may prescribe an ointment for the yeast infection. It’s important to keep up with follow-up veterinary visits for ear infections. Sometimes, there won’t be an immediate improvement, and your dog’s condition may get worse.

Some Dog Breeds That Are Most Prone to Ear Infection

Think long, droopy ears! Dog breeds with long droopy ears or non-erect ears may develop more ear infections than dogs with erect ears.

  • Afghan Hound
  • Basset Hound
  • Bloodhound
  • Bull Mastiff
  • Coonhound
  • Bichon Frise
  • Bernese Mountain Dog
  • Springer Spaniel
  • Weimaraner
  • Newfoundland
  • Great Dane
  • Beagles
  • Labrador
  • Golden Retriever
  • Portuguese Water Dogs
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Cannabidiol Oil(CBD) May Be Beneficial for Ear Infections in Dogs

For dogs with ear pain or ear infections, it’s always a priority to first visit your veterinarian for a diagnosis. Cannabidiol oil does not replace veterinary care, but can be combined with veterinary care.

With the CBD market taking off, and CBD THC-free hemp oil supplements for pets proving to be effective in pain relief, as well as for reducing inflammation, it’s not surprising that pet parents are opting for these products, instead of long-term pharmaceuticals that may have side- effects. Consult with an expert at Sit & Stay for facts about CBD dosing, and a product’s transparency.

What is CBD

Cannabidiol or CBD is one of the components of the cannabis plant that does not give your furry best friend a “high” CBD is derived from the hemp plant, and can also come from the marijuana plants.

Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, is what you don’t want in your CBD pet products. Legally, all CBD hemp oil supplements can only have 0.3% or less THC. THC is federally illegal in the US but is available for medical use in several states, and in Canada with a medical marijuana card.

Cannabis

This label embodies both the hemp and marijuana plant, with both plants being different and carrying varying amounts of THC and CBD. Marijuana plants may have up to 20% THC. Cannabis that contains more than 0,3% THC is considered marijuana with medical marijuana having from 5-20% THC. Hemp plants will produce more cannabinoids than THC, while marijuana plants will produce more THC than CBD.

CBD that is free of THC may be beneficial in the treatment of numerous health conditions in dogs and people, without the long-term side-effects of pharmaceuticals. CBD is a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid and provides therapeutic and medicinal purposes for dogs, cats, and horses. To help you understand more about the benefits of CBD oil for dogs dealing with ear pain, let’s look at some research.

The Endocannabinoid System in Dogs

Dr. Lascelles from North Carolina State University adds “However, dogs do have the same natural cannabinoid receptors in the endocannabinoid system as humans,” (The endocannabinoid system involves physiological processes such as appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.) These receptors are found in the dog’s brain and peripheral nervous system. In fact, scientific research has confirmed that cannabis receptors exist in many different species, including dogs,” via Animal Wellness.

A 2018 study from the University of McGill added that they had great news for chronic pain sufferers and that they were now able to pinpoint the effective dose of cannabidiol or CBD for safe pain relief, without the “high” from THC.

The researchers added that “We found in animal models of chronic pain that low doses of CBD administered for seven days alleviate both pain and anxiety, two symptoms often associated with neuropathic or chronic pain,” via Science Daily. The study goes on to add “Our findings elucidate the mechanism of action of CBD and show that it can be used as medicine without the dangerous side effects of the THC,” says Dr. Gobbi, who is also Professor of Psychiatry at the Faculty of Medicine at McGill University and staff psychiatrist at the MUHC. “This research is a new advancement for an evidence-based application of cannabis in medicine,” via Science Daily.

CBD Oil Benefits for Pain and Other Health Conditions in Dogs

  • Pain reliever
  • May help with canine depression resulting from pain
  • May provide relief from cancer side effects like chemotherapy and radiation
  • Promotes healthy skin and coat by preventing sebaceous gland cells from secreting too much sebum
  • May provide benefits to dogs with neurological disorders
  • Helps decrease inflammation in dogs
  • May help prevent cognitive decline
  • May be beneficial for cardiac health
  • CBD may be beneficial in preventing tumor growth
  • CBD helps with diabetes prevention by reducing diabetes up to 56%, and reducing associated inflammation in diabetic dogs.
  • Digestive issues
  • Blood disorders
  • Fights off free radicals, and may prevent the development of cancer

What to Look for in a CBD Hemp Oil Supplement or Treats?

  • Hemp CBD should be 100% food grade
  • Should be made using CO2 extraction
  • No solvents like butane
  • Full-spectrum lab testing by a third party for purity and potency
  • Lab certificates need to be available for all pet parents
  • Pesticide and herbicide free
  • Made with non-GMO hemp
  • Grain-free functional chews if purchasing CBD treats. Numerous flavors in treats like pumpkin, turkey, sweet potato, blueberry with antioxidant properties.
  • Ask for proper and accurate labeling and dosage instructions.
  • Look at each CBD product and research what each CBD product does and does not contain.
  • Find out where and how it was manufactured.
  • Look at the research and find out more about the potential therapeutic effects
  • Find out more about the risks with the specific CBD product by understanding the exact composition. Consult with your veterinarian for a diagnosis first.
  • Look out for misleading labels. Opt for large reputable brands that have been around for a while.
  • Look out for harmful contaminants that may be potentially deadly. No China-sourced or manufactured. If it’s cheaper, there’s a reason. Check out the pesticides and herbicides in the product. There should be none. Look out for glyphosate! Ask questions!
  • Research the 3 rd party labs associated with your CBD product.
  • Make sure that CBD dog products are used responsibly.

Another study published in the European Journal of Pain demonstrates how CBD gel is effective in reducing inflammation and hypersensitivity.

“Outcomes of this study indicate that topical application of CBD gel is an effective treatment for reduction in inflammation and hypersensitivity associated with the rodent adjuvant-induced monoarthritis model.” The results were in relation to the absence of psychoactive behaviors.

“CBD is a known non-psychoactive cannabinoid, and due to its low affinity for the CB1 receptor, it would be expected that exploratory behavioral activity would be similar among treatment groups compared to negative side-effects associated with THC. These studies demonstrate transdermal administration of CBD has long-lasting therapeutic effects without psychoactive side-effects. Thus, use of topical CBD has potential as an effective treatment of arthritic symptomatology,” via NCBI

According to the National Cancer Institute , “cannabinoids activate specific receptors found throughout the body to produce pharmacologic effects, particularly in the central nervous system and the immune system.” These natural chemicals may be helpful in treating cancer-related symptoms such as pain, via Animal Wellness.

CBD Oil For Dogs With Ear Infections

The bottom line on CBD oil for dogs with ear infections is that veterinary consultation needs to come first, with a follow- up recommendation for CBD hemp oil supplements for dogs. That said, always purchase a high-grade, US CBD hemp oil supplement .

Consult with your veterinarian for accurate dosage information. That said, you’ll have all the necessary information on how to purchase the right CBD oil for your dog.