Hemp Production for CBD – Revised
University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension information typically is based on the interpretation of research information from Nebraska or elsewhere in the Midwest. However, such information is not available for hemp production due to previous restrictions on research in the U.S. This publication relies heavily on research findings from Europe and Canada and learning from growers’ experiences. See more stories in this series at https://cropwatch.unl.edu/tags/hemp.
Demand for CBD, a non-psychoactive compound derived from hemp, has soared for un-validated treatment of many conditions and illnesses. However, an approximate 75% plummet in prices for the CBD feedstock during 2019 indicates that the supply exceeded demand.
CBD-containing products marketed in the US range from cosmetics to chocolate bars to bottled water to pet treats, all with no regulation. The Food and Drug Administration warned marketers of CBD products against the use of non-validated health claims to sell their products. In June 2019 the FDA approved the first CBD-based drug, called Epidiolex, to treat seizures caused by extreme types of epilepsy. The efficacy of CBD for treatment of chronic pain, neuro-inflammation, anxiety, addiction, and anti-psychotic effects has not been well-validated by clinical research.
Hemp grown for CBD is a high-value crop grown more as a horticultural than as an agronomic crop. It has a high labor demand, putting US production at a disadvantage with production in China and other countries with relatively inexpensive labor.
Hemp CBD varieties have not been well-validated for Nebraska but possibilities may include ‘Abocus’, ‘Autopilot’, ‘Boax’, Cherry Wine, Cherry Blossom, Cobbler, and Sweetgrass for high pharmaceutical-grade CBD yield but having less than 0.3% THC.. High CBD varieties are generally grown only as female plants, as the combination of male and female plants leads to seed production and decreased CBD yield. Breeders continue to improve the processes for creating stable feminized seed. Farmers need to be wary of the source of their feminized seed stock and to check test results for validation of feminized seed.
Farmers need to know state regulations for testing hemp for CBD and THC. The Nebraska Department of Agriculture (NDA) regulations for industrial hemp production have been approved by USDA. Plant sampling by NDA staff to test for THC needs to be within 15 days before the date of harvest with the grower present during sampling. If the THC level is >0.3% by dry weight, the crop will not meet the legal definition of industrial hemp and need to be destroyed. Again, THC is expected to increase with stressful growing conditions.
CBD varieties have short plants with much branching, growing as squat bushes. The suggested spacing at this time is 2-4 feet x 6 feet. Planting practices may change for higher plant densities when seed supply is sufficient to greatly reduce the cost of seed. Given the high cost of seed, seedlings should be produced in a greenhouse for transplanting. If planting more than five acres, machine transplanting is recommended which may allow transplanting 2 acres per day. Plants can also be produced from cuttings with similar vigor and productivity compared to plants from seedlings. Propagation from cuttings may improve plant uniformity and is a means to all-female plants. The potting mix for greenhouse production of seedlings is important but needs to be well-drained with good available water holding capacity and nutrient supply. The mix probably should include sandy loam soil, perlite, and some organic material.
The CBD levels can be much reduced by cross-pollination with wild or non-CBD hemp. The CBD plants must be well-separated by distance or time of pollination from hemp weeds or another hemp crop. Also, a few rows of corn or forage sorghum can planted around the plots to reduce pollen flow.
The highest concentration of CBD is in the bracts of female flowers but CBD oil may be extracted from the whole plant. Harvest may be by topping plants for the harvest of mostly leaves and flowers, by picking the leaves and flowers from the plant, or by taking most of the plant cut at 8-12” above the ground. The whole plant harvest may be by shredding such as with a silage chopper or by keeping the plant intact.
Drying the plant material is a major operation as the water content is high when harvested. To reduce the quantity to be dried and handled for CBD production, the woody stems may be removed for land application, composting or dried separately for fiber production. Artificial drying at up to 100 o F should be continuous flow but the temperature of the plant material should not exceed 75 o F. Suspending plants or branches upside down by wires indoors out of the sun and with good air movement for air drying at up to 75 o F is a common practice if the harvest is not too large.
The ground-up plant material is soaked in grain alcohol or ethanol to extract the CBD oil. After soaking, the mix is pressed to extract the liquid. The alcohol is then evaporated off leaving the CBD oil.
Drying for smoke able buds is an option. Smoking of CBD is reported to be more effective than oral consumption. The buds are preferred but some upper leaves may be included. Well-dried material can be kept and sold in sealable plastic bags or glass jars.
Market information is too weak for prediction or advice but information is improving such as with a USDA ERS Feb 2020 report.
For information on budgeting for hemp grain, fiber and CBD production, see worksheets from Pennsylvania State University and from the University of Kentucky.
Hemp Oil vs CBD Oil: What’s The Difference?
The main difference between hemp oil vs CBD oil, is that hemp oil has little to no CBD content. Hemp Oil is made by cold-pressing the hemp seeds into an omega-rich culinary oil. CBD oil is made by extracting the compound CBD from the leaves, flowers and stalks of a hemp plant. However, both hemp oil and CBD oil, have their own health benefits.
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Good Hemp has now launched a new range of Pure & lab tested CBD Oil on various flavours, such as citrus and peppermint!
If you’ve read anything about the wellness trends for 2020 and 2021 then chances are you’ve heard of hemp oil and CBD oil (and chances are you’re a bit confused).
We’re here to make understanding CBD oil vs hemp seed oil as easy as loving them is. In a sentence, hemp oil (also known as hemp seed oil) comes from the seeds of the Cannabis sativa plants and, while it does have health benefits, does not contain CBD. CBD oil, on the other hand, is a chemical compound extracted from the leaves, flowers and stalk of the same plant, and is used to treat everything from depression and anxiety to epilepsy and insomnia.
Here at Good Hemp we make a range of hemp products (from our hemp milk and hemp seeds to hemp protein powder and, of course, our original hemp oil ) from the hemp seed. But you’ve probably got more questions about all that: Are hemp oil and CBD oil the same thing or is there a difference between hemp oil and CBD oil? How exactly does CBD work? Does that mean hemp gets you high?
We thought we’d answer all of those questions in one place and delve deeper into hemp oil vs CBD oil.
What’s the difference between hemp and marijuana?
When considering the differences between hemp oil and CBD oil, it’s good to look at the broader picture. Both marijuana and hemp are varieties of the cannabis plant (hemp is Cannabis sativa , while marijuana is Cannabis indica ). The main difference between hemp and marijuana is that while marijuana contains up to 30% of the psychoactive compound called tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), hemp contains virtually none (typically below 0.3%). So essentially, marijuana will get you high and hemp won’t.
Will CBD get you high?
No, CBD will not get you high because CBD is another one of the many compounds found in cannabis plants (so in both hemp and marijuana) which has no psychoactive properties.
Is CBD made from marijuana or hemp?
CBD can be extracted from both marijuana and hemp. However, as marijuana is illegal in most places, much of the CBD you’ll find on the market is made from hemp.
What are the benefits of CBD oil?
The benefits of CBD oil is that it is used to treat a number of different conditions including anxiety, depression, pain and PMS, and is said to have beneficial effects on concentration, energy levels and sleep. It’s also sometimes used topically as an anti-inflammatory (but you might want to check the price before you start pouring it on your bad back – some CBD oils can cost around £140 for a small vial).
Interested? Good! We’ve actually dedicated a whole blog post for the benefits of CBD oil – check it out to learn more!
How does CBD work?
Put simply, CBD restores homeostasis (the body’s natural balance). It works in the endocannabinoid system by activating two of its core receptors (known as CB1 and CB2), which regulate mood, temperature, cognitive function and muscle repair.
For more information, read our blog post on what CBD oil is .
What are the benefits of Good Hemp Oil?
Good Hemp’s hemp oil is super-rich in omegas (otherwise known as good fat) and has 25 times more omegas than olive oil. It has absolutely no trans fats (and 40% less saturated fats than olive oil).
What is omega good for?
Omega-3s are essential fatty acids that many experts believe aid good brain and heart health as well as boosting circulation and the immune system. Gamma linolenic acid (or GLA) is part of the omega-6 family and is known for its role in easing the symptoms of PMS and supporting the growth of healthy skin, hair and nails. Meanwhile omega-9 plays a role in promoting heart health by supporting balanced cholesterol levels and improving immune function.
How do I use CBD oil?
There are different ways on how to use CBD oil. Most people take a few drops of CBD oil under the tongue, but it can be added to your smoothie, coffee (apparently it takes away the jitters) or applied topically to pain points.
Can you take hemp oil and CBD oil together?
It’s perfectly safe to take hemp oil and CBD oil at together. Even combining different CBD products is considered a completely safe thing to do.
Is hemp oil better than CBD oil?
It depends on what you are using it for, as both have properties that serve different purposes. Hemp oil typically has more nutritional benefits, while CBD oil is best for treating the conditions we mentioned above (anxiety and depression). And, when it comes to hemp oil and CBD oil for pain relief, CBD oil wins (although hemp oil can help as well).
Is hemp oil good for pain?
Yes, hemp oil can be good for pain. Hemp seed oil is applied topically or ingested by many people as a form of natural pain relief. It has anti-inflammatory properties that can be useful for people suffering from a variety of painful infections, autoimmune disorders or injuries.
Can you rub hemp oil on skin for pain?
Hemp seed oil can be useful as a massage oil that can reduce pain when rubbed on sore joints.
Is hemp oil or CBD oil better for anxiety?
When it comes to hemp oil vs CBD oil for anxiety, both can help to reduce it, although it is typically agreed that CBD oil is better overall for treating anxiety. It positively interacts with the endocannabinoid system – aka what regulates our moods. Studies have found that it can help ease social anxiety and get rid of fear.
Here’s how @hijessiemay is using our pure CBD oil to help ease anxiety and sleep better at night.